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  • Developing Policy When Evidence Is Lacking

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(10):929-930. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.1945

    This Viewpoint discusses how the Commission to Eliminate Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities developed policy recommendations in the absence of trial data, relying strongly on aggregate testimony from communities.

  • Prevention of Congenital Disorders and Care of Affected Children: A Consensus Statement

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(8):790-793. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0388

    This consensus statement discusses measures to reduce the mortality and severe disability associated with potentially avoidable congenital disorders and their consequences for the children affected.

  • JAMA Pediatrics June 1, 2016

    Figure 4: Interhospital Relationship Between Giving Prophylaxis When Indicated and Not Giving Prophylaxis When Not Indicated

    Each circle represents 1 hospital with the size of the circle reflecting the volume of procedures; vertical and horizontal lines represent overall median rates.
  • JAMA Pediatrics June 1, 2016

    Figure 2: Interhospital Variation in Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis Among the 45 Most Commonly Performed Operations, 2010-2013

    Open circles represent procedures for which prophylaxis was indicated; closed circles represent procedures for which prophylaxis was not indicated; and horizontal bars represent interquartile range by hospital. ORIF indicates open reduction internal fixation.
  • Long-Acting Reversible Contraception and Condom Use Among Female US High School Students: Implications for Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(5):428-434. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0007

    This cross-sectional analysis compares condom use among sexually active female US high school students who use long-acting reversible contraception vs moderately effective contraceptive methods.

  • JAMA Pediatrics May 1, 2016

    Figure: Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Therapy

    In clinical practice, prognosis links diagnosis and therapy by indicating what is expected. The relationship of prognosis informed by diagnosis and informing therapy is shown with solid arrows. Therapy—through treatment or prevention—may also influence both prognosis and diagnosis, as shown by the dashed arrows.
  • Genetic Differential Susceptibility to Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Obesogenic Behavior: Why Targeted Prevention May Be the Best Societal Investment

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(4):359-364. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.4253

    This cohort study investigates whether children carrying the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 gene living under adverse economic conditions have different fat intakes than those living in a healthy environment.

  • JAMA Pediatrics April 1, 2016

    Figure 1: Frequency of Fish Intake in Pregnancy (Times/Week) in Participating Cohorts

    The line within the box marks the median; the boundaries of the box indicate the 25th and 75th percentiles; horizontal bars denote the variability outside the upper and lower quartiles (ie, within 1.5 IQR of the lower and upper quartiles); and circles represent outliers. Cohort abbreviations: ABCD, Amsterdam Born Children and their Development; EDEN, Étude des Déterminants Pré et Postnatals du Développement et de la Santé de l’Enfant; FLEHS I, Flemish Center of Expertise on Environment and Health; GASPII, Genetics and Environment Prospective Study on Childhood in Italy; HUMIS, Human Milk Study; INMA, Infancia y Medio Ambiente; KOALA, Kind, Ouders, en Gezondheid: Aandacht voor Leefstijl en Aanleg Birth Cohort Study; NINFEA, Nascita e INFanzia: gli Effetti dell’Ambiente; PIAMA, Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy; REPRO, Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study; RHEA, Mother Child Cohort in Crete.
  • JAMA Pediatrics April 1, 2016

    Figure 2: Adjusted Associations of Fish Intake in Pregnancy With Rapid Growth in Infancy and Childhood Overweight/Obesity

    Rapid growth was defined as a weight gain z score greater than 0.67 based on World Health Organization (WHO) growth curves. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index in the 85th percentile or higher for age and sex based on WHO growth curves. Odds ratios (95% CIs) by cohort were obtained by using logistic regression models adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, prepregnancy body mass index, smoking during pregnancy, and birth weight. Reference category was fish intake 1 or more times/week. Combined estimates were obtained by using a random-effects meta-analysis. The names of the cohorts and the cohort-specific ORs (95% CIs) are shown on the left, and weights of each study are shown on the right. The squares represent the point estimate of each study, whereas the size of the square is proportional to the weight assigned to each cohort based on both the within- and between-study variability; horizontal lines denote 95% CIs; and diamonds represent overall estimates. Cohort abbreviations: ABCD, Amsterdam Born Children and their Development; EDEN, Étude des Déterminants Pré et Postnatals du Développement et de la Santé de l’Enfant; FLEHS I, Flemish Center of Expertise on Environment and Health; GASPII, Genetics and Environment Prospective Study on Childhood in Italy; HUMIS, Human Milk Study; INMA, Infancia y Medio Ambiente; KOALA, Kind, Ouders, en Gezondheid: Aandacht voor Leefstijl en Aanleg Birth Cohort Study; NINFEA, Nascita e INFanzia: gli Effetti dell’Ambiente; PIAMA, Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy; REPRO, Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study; RHEA, Mother Child Cohort in Crete.
  • What Pediatricians and Other Clinicians Should Know About Zika Virus

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(4):309-310. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0429

    This Viewpoint describes the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, prevention, and diagnosis of Zika virus.

  • Synbiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(3):236-242. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3943

    This meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials investigates the efficacy of synbiotics in the prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis in children.

  • Outcomes of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immunoprophylaxis in Infants Using an Abbreviated Dosing Regimen of Palivizumab

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(2):174-176. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3235

    This study details the experience of using an abbreviated palivizumab dosing schedule in infants at higher risk for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization.

  • Precision Treatment and Precision Prevention: Integrating “Below and Above the Skin”

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(1):9-10. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.2786

    This Viewpoint discusses integrating treatment and prevention in precision medicine.

  • A Glimpse of Microbial Power in Preventive Medicine

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(1):11-11. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3246
  • Challenges in Prevention of Abusive Head Trauma

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(12):1093-1094. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3023
  • Trajectory Analysis of the Campus Serial Rapist Assumption

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(12):1148-1154. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0707

    This cohort study investigates whether most college men who commit rape do so consistently across time.

  • The Folic Acid Rescue Strategy: High-Dose Folic Acid Supplementation in Early Pregnancy

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(12):1083-1084. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.2235

    This Viewpoint analyzes the current state of preconceptional folic acid use and proposes a strategy to increase the potential of folic acid supplementation in neural tube defect prevention.

  • Integrated Medical-Behavioral Care Compared With Usual Primary Care for Child and Adolescent Behavioral Health: A Meta-analysis

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(10):929-937. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.1141

    This systematic meta-analysis evaluated whether integrated medical-behavioral primary care leads to improved youth behavioral health outcomes compared with usual care.

  • Noninvasive Ventilation With vs Without Early Surfactant to Prevent Chronic Lung Disease in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(8):731-739. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0510

    This systematic review found that although the intubate-surfactant-extubate approach is not superior to noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure in preventing chronic lung disease, it does not increase chronic lung disease, death, or air leakage.

  • Sustainability of Effects of an Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Trial Over Time: A Further 3-Year Follow-up of the Healthy Beginnings Trial

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(6):543-551. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0258

    This longitudinal follow-up study of the Healthy Beginnings Trial assesses the sustainability of effects of a home-based early intervention on children’s BMI and BMI z score at 3 years after intervention in socially and economically disadvantaged areas of Sydney, Australia.