Showing 1 – 20 of 368
Relevance | Newest | Oldest |
  • Early, Accurate Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA Pediatr. 2017; 171(9):897-907. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.1689

    This Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment review of the literature identifies best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and summarizes best available early intervention evidence to optimize neuroplasticity and functional outcomes.

  • Intracranial Gadolinium Deposition Following Gadodiamide-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA Pediatr. 2017; 171(7):705-707. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0264

    This study determines the extent of deposition in gadolinium-based contrast agent–exposed pediatric population and whether prior observations were related to age-dependent breakdown of the blood blood-brain barrier.

  • JAMA Pediatrics March 1, 2017

    Figure 2: Brain Findings in Infants With Presumed Congenital Zika Syndrome

    Computed tomographic scan in 1 infant and magnetic resonance imaging in another infant with prenatal Zika exposure show scattered punctate calcifications (A, B, C, and E; white arrowheads), very low forehead and small cranial vault (D), striking volume loss shown by enlarged extra-axial space and ventriculomegaly (all images), poor gyral development with few and shallow sulci (A and E; long white arrows), poor gyral development with irregular “beaded” cortex most consistent with polymicrogyria (F, white arrowheads), flattened pons and small cerebellum (D; black arrowhead and asterisk). The occipital “shelf” caused by skull collapse is seen in both infants (C, white arrow and D, white arrowhead).
  • JAMA Pediatrics March 1, 2017

    Figure 1: Cranial Morphology Supporting Fetal Brain Disruption Sequence Phenotype in Congenital Zika Syndrome

    A, Lateral view of an infant with congenital Zika virus infection. Note the severe decrease in cranial vault, irregularity of the skull, and scalp rugae. B, Typical scalp folds or rugae in a 3-month-old infant with presumed congenital Zika virus infection. C, Lateral skull radiograph in a newborn showing partial collapse of the cranial bones with prominent occiput. D, Fetal magnetic resonance image (MRI) showing same phenotype at 29 weeks’ gestation. The white arrowhead indicates occipital area. E and F, 3-Dimensional skull reconstruction in a 3-month-old infant showing downward displacement of the frontal and parietal bones while the occipital bone appears stable.
  • Protective Prevention Effects on the Association of Poverty With Brain Development

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA Pediatr. 2017; 171(1):46-52. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.2988

    This secondary analysis of data from the Strong African American Families randomized trial aims to determine whether participation in program designed to enhance supportive parenting for rural African American children ameliorates the association between living in poverty and reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in adulthood.

  • Association of Prenatal Diagnosis of Critical Congenital Heart Disease With Postnatal Brain Development and the Risk of Brain Injury

    Abstract Full Text
    free access online only
    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(4):e154450. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.4450

    This cohort study compares brain injury prevalence and brain development in neonates with prenatal vs postnatal diagnosis of critical congenital heart disease.

  • JAMA Pediatrics April 4, 2016

    Figure 2: Scatterplots and Linear Regression Lines of Change in the Log of Fractional Anisotropy and the Log of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient

    Scatterplots and linear regression lines of change in the fractional anisotropy in white matter voxels (A) and apparent diffusion coefficient in gray matter voxels (B) demonstrate a faster rate of increase in fractional anisotropy (P = .04) and a faster rate of decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (P = .02) in patients with prenatal diagnosis of critical congenital heart disease than in those with postnatal diagnosis. Time is defined as the gestational age when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed (includes both preoperative and postoperative scans).
  • JAMA Pediatrics April 4, 2016

    Figure 1: Preoperative and Postoperative Brain Injury Severity by Postnatal vs Prenatal Diagnosis of Critical Congenital Heart Disease

    Brain injury severity on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with postnatal (A) and prenatal (B) diagnosis of critical congenital heart disease as well as on postoperative MRI in patients with postnatal (C) and prenatal (D) diagnosis of critical congenital heart disease. Brain injury severity was assigned as the following: 0 indicates no injury; 1, minimal white matter injury and intraventricular hemorrhage grade I or II; 2, stroke; and 3, moderate to severe white matter injury, intraventricular hemorrhage grade III, or global hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. A test for trends demonstrates a significant trend toward less severe brain injury on preoperative MRI in the prenatal diagnosis group (P = .02). There was no meaningful difference in new postoperative brain injury severity (P = .40).
  • Radiograph-Negative Lateral Ankle Injuries in Children: Occult Growth Plate Fracture or Sprain?

    Abstract Full Text
    free access online only
    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(1):e154114. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.4114

    This cohort study aims to determine the frequency of Salter-Harris I fractures of the distal fibula using magnetic resonance imaging and compare the functional recovery of children with fractures identified by magnetic resonance imaging vs those with isolated ligament injuries.

  • Revisiting Radiograph-Negative Ankle Injuries in Children: Is It a Fracture or a Sprain?

    Abstract Full Text
    online only
    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(1):e154147. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.4147
  • Effect of Early Adversity and Childhood Internalizing Symptoms on Brain Structure in Young Men

    Abstract Full Text
    free access
    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(10):938-946. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.1486

    This cohort study evaluates the effects of early childhood adversity on gray matter volume in young men.

  • Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement

    Abstract Full Text
    free access
    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(9):822-829. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.1475

    This longitudinal cohort study investigates whether atypical structural development in areas of the brain tied to school readiness skills mediates the relationship between childhood poverty and impaired academic performance.

  • Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Review for the Clinician

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(4):397-403. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.3269

    This review finds that understanding of the pathophysiological features of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is improving. Treatment with hypothermia has become the foundation of therapy.

  • JAMA Pediatrics March 1, 2015

    Figure: CONSORT Flow Diagram

    DTI indicates diffusion tensor imaging; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging.
  • JAMA Pediatrics November 1, 2014

    Figure: Healthy Eating Aerobic and Resistance Training in Youth Trial Flow Diagram

    Those whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) files were technically inadequate and not analyzed for the MRI-related variables were still included in analyses of other (non-MRI) variables. BMI indicates body mass index.
  • JAMA Pediatrics July 1, 2014

    Figure: Adolescent With Right Orbital Swelling and Proptosis

    Adolescent boy with eyelid swelling, redness, and pain. A, Swelling of the right orbital (white arrowhead) and periorbital (black arrowhead) tissues and proptosis, with mild swelling of the left upper eyelid (blue arrowhead). B, Maxillofacial computed tomography with intravenous contrast showed severe right proptosis with stretching of the right optic nerve (white arrowhead) and thickening of the rectus muscles and soft tissues (black arrowhead). Mild enlargement of the lacrimal gland on the left side can also be seen (blue arrowhead). C, Maxillofacial magnetic resonance imaging with intravenous contrast. Coronal (left) and axial (right) views showed inflammation involving the intraconal fat and perineural soft tissues (white arrowhead), as well as the inferior and lateral extraocular muscles, on the right side. The black arrowheads indicate the muscles in the coronal and axial views.
  • Picture of the Month—Quiz Case

    Abstract Full Text
    free access
    JAMA Pediatr. 2013; 167(5):483-483. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.7a
  • JAMA Pediatrics September 1, 2012

    Figure: Picture of the Month—Quiz Case

    Figure 2. Axial (A) and coronal (B) T1-weighted, fat-saturated, postcontrast magnetic resonance imaging of the left hand demonstrating an enhancing mass in the hypothenar aspect with infiltrative margins extending into the fourth webspace.
  • Picture of the Month—Quiz Case

    Abstract Full Text
    free access
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012; 166(9):863-863. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.658