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  • Changing the Language of Addiction

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2016; 316(13):1361-1362. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.11874

    This Viewpoint describes efforts to revise language and policies in ways that frame addiction as a treatable chronic brain disorder rather than as a moral failing of people who use addictive substances.

  • JAMA January 26, 2016

    Figure 2: Literature Flow Diagram

    aDetails about reasons for exclusion are as follows. Aim: study aim not relevant. Setting: study was not conducted in a setting or country relevant to US primary care. Comparative effectiveness: study did not have a control group. Instrument: study did not use an included screening instrument. Outcomes: study did not have relevant outcomes or had incomplete outcomes. Population: study was not conducted in a pregnant or postpartum population or was limited to a narrow population not broadly representative of primary care. Intervention: study used an excluded intervention or screening approach. Design: study did not use an included design. For review for key question 2 (KQ2), design included >2 weeks between screening and reference test, or reference test was not applied to full range of screening results or could not adjust for partial verification. Quality: study did not meet criteria for fair or good quality (ie, it was poor quality) using study design–specific criteria developed by the US Preventive Services Task Force for randomized clinical trials,16 the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 for diagnostic accuracy studies,17 the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale18 for observational studies, or A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) for systematic reviews.19 The criteria and definitions of good, fair, poor are provided in eTable 1 in the Supplement. Language: study was published in a non-English language. Instrument not brief: study included a screening instrument that was not brief (ie, exceeded 15 minutes to complete). Study included in systematic evidence review (SER): study was included in existing SER that was included as evidence.
  • JAMA September 8, 2015

    Figure: Advanced Multimodal Imaging in a Case of a 56-Year-Old Left-Handed Woman With Medically Refractory Epilepsy

    A, Magnetoencephalography identified a few possible abnormal discharges in the left temporal lobe, shown here as fused images with high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) images. B, Metabolic imaging with simultaneous 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (18FDG PET/MRI) demonstrated hypometabolism in the left posterior medial temporal lobe. Arrowheads indicate decreased glucose uptake in the left posterior medial temporal lobe. C, Gradient echo MR image obtained at 7 T demonstrated extensive blood products abutting the left hippocampal tail along with a possible large draining vein. D, MR angiography performed at 7 T showed no abnormal vasculature in the left mesial temporal lobe. E, Task-based fMRI for presurgical planning showed right hemisphere activation corresponding to language eloquent cortex. F, Functional connectivity analysis with resting-state fMRI showed decreased connectivity throughout the default mode network in the left cerebral hemisphere. Surgical resection of the lesion in the left mesial temporal lobe demonstrated a thrombosed arteriovenous malformation.
  • JAMA December 10, 2014

    Figure: 2013 Applicants With at Least Self-rated Advanced Proficiency in a Non-English Language in the United States

    The data presented in this figure are from the US Census Bureau. The following categories, which were among the top 25 languages, were excluded: other Indic languages, African languages, other Asian, other Indo-European, other Pacific, and other Slavic. LEP indicates limited English proficiency.aIncludes Cantonese, Mandarin, and other dialects.bRefers to all LEP speakers in the United States; therefore, in 2013, there were 105 applicants with at least advanced proficiency in any non-English language for every 100 000 LEP speakers.cThe US Census Bureau combines both Spanish and Spanish Creole.
  • Non–English-Language Proficiency of Applicants to US Residency Programs

    Abstract Full Text
    free access
    JAMA. 2014; 312(22):2405-2407. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.15444
  • JAMA November 5, 2014

    Figure: Uninsured Rate Among Latino Adults Between July-September 2013 and April-June 2014 by Age, Language Spoken, and Income

    FPL indicates federal poverty level. Medicaid expansion includes states that began enrolling individuals in Medicaid in April 2014 or earlier: Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia. All other states were coded as not expanding Medicaid coverage. Data source: The Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Surveys.
  • Introducing the JAMA Guide to Statistics and Methods

    Abstract Full Text
    free access
    JAMA. 2014; 312(1):35-35. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.7991
  • Rethinking the Information Priorities of Patients

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2014; 311(18):1857-1858. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.3038
  • Talking to Patients in the 21st Century

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2013; 309(22):2384-2385. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.7159
  • Cognitive Effects of Konzo

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2013; 309(19):1985-1985. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.4960
  • JAMA May 1, 2013

    Figure 2. Mean Bayley-III Composite Cognitive, Language, and Motor Scores at 2.5 Years of Corrected Age for Extremely Preterm Children by Gestational Age at Birth and for the Term Control Group

    The diagonal line indicates the mean of the controls and the vertical bars represent the 99% CIs of the mean values. The regression lines with 99% CIs for respective scores of children in the preterm group are based on the equations: cognitive score = 83.12 + (GA-21) × 2.517, P < .001; language score = 82.78 + (GA-21) × 3.551, P < .001; and motor score = 83.24 + (GA-21) × 2.523, P = .001. GA indicates gestational age in completed weeks.
  • Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Extremely Preterm Infants at 2.5 Years After Active Perinatal Care in Sweden

    Abstract Full Text
    free access
    JAMA. 2013; 309(17):1810-1820. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.3786
    Serenius and colleagues study neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely preterm children at 2.5 years (corrected age) in 491 survivors compared with control participants in a population-based prospective cohort in Sweden.
  • Stemming the Global Trade in Falsified and Substandard Medicines

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2013; 309(16):1693-1694. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.3048
  • Appropriate Use of Non–English-Language Skills in Clinical Care

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2013; 309(2):145-146. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.116984
  • Medical Documentation in the Electronic Era

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2012; 308(20):2091-2092. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.14849
  • JAMA November 7, 2012

    Figure 2: Association of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors With Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence Among Hispanic/Latino Participants by Sex

    High cholesterol was defined as serum total cholesterol level ≥240 mg/dL or taking cholesterol-lowering medication. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive medication. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Diabetes mellitus was defined as use of diabetes medication, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, 2-hour-postload plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL, or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%. Smoking was defined as current cigarette smoker. Model 1 was adjusted for age. Model 2 was adjusted for age and all other major biomedical cardiovascular disease risk factors. Model 3 was adjusted for all variables in model 2 plus education, annual family income, Hispanic/Latino background, language preference, nativity (US born), Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics score, physical activity, and diet. Error bars indicate 95% CI.
  • The JAMA Network Journals: New Names for the Archives Journals

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2012; 308(1):85-85. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.6312
  • The Debut of Viewpoints and Other New Developments at JAMA

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2012; 307(1):90-91. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.1958
  • New HHS Data Standards for Race, Ethnicity, Sex, Primary Language, and Disability Status

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2011; 306(21):2378-2379. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.1789
  • JAMA November 9, 2011

    Figure 2: Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) Flow Diagram

    The 10 most common reasons recorded for failure of screened participants to meet clinical eligibility criteria were as follows: transient ischemic attack or stroke not in territory of occluded carotid artery (n = 1597), transient ischemic attack or stroke not within preceding 120 days (n = 485), language comprehension not intact (n = 283), nonatherosclerotic condition causing carotid artery occlusion (n = 280), modified Barthel Index not ≥12/20 (n = 168), unsuitable surgical candidate (n = 160), no occlusion of 1 internal carotid artery (n = 114), not competent to give informed consent (n = 110), subsequent surgery planned that might alter cerebral hemodynamics (n = 105), age not 18-85 years (n = 104). For each screened participant, only 1 reason needed to be provided. PET indicates positron emission tomography; EC-IC, extracranial-intracranial; DSMB, data and safety monitoring board.