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  • JAMA Pediatrics August 1, 2016

    Figure 3: Global Intestinal Microbiota Composition in the Subcohort of 42 Children With Fecal Microbiota Composition Analysis

    A, Principal coordinates analysis of the intestinal microbiota with Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, categorized by the duration of breastfeeding (short, 0-6 months; long, 8-16 months) and antibiotic use during breastfeeding or shortly after weaning (no early-life antibiotic use, AB−; early-life antibiotic use, AB+). Each circle is the microbiota of a child and the number in each circle indicates the age (in years) of the child at the time of fecal sample collection. B, Box and whisker plot of Actinobacteria to Firmicutes relative abundance ratio by group. For the taxa, the unit is the number of DNA sequencing reads assigned to that taxon relative to the total number of reads for the sample; the ratio is therefore computed as the following: (Actinobacteria reads/total reads)/(Firmicutes reads/total reads). The horizontal line in the middle of each box indicates median; top and bottom borders of each box, 75th and 25th percentiles, respectively; whiskers above and below each box, maximally 1.5 times the length of the box; and points beyond the whiskers, outliers beyond 1.5 times the length of the box.aP < .001.bP < .01.
  • JAMA Pediatrics August 1, 2016

    Figure 4: Differences in Abundance of the Intestinal Microbiota Associated With Breastfeeding and Antibiotic Use

    Significant differences between the mean relative abundance of the indicated genera (phyla shown at the top of panels) in the group with long breastfeeding duration (8-16 months) with early-life antibiotic use (long/AB+) and the group with short breastfeeding duration (0-6 months) and no early-life antibiotic use (short/AB−) compared with the group with long breastfeeding duration and no early-life antibiotic use (long/AB−). Error bars indicate standard error.aFalse discovery rate–corrected P < .10, based on negative binomial models.
  • Childhood Obesity, Breastfeeding, Intestinal Microbiota, and Early Exposure to Antibiotics: What Is the Link?

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(8):735-737. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0964
  • Association of Early-Life Antibiotic Use and Protective Effects of Breastfeeding: Role of the Intestinal Microbiota

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(8):750-757. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0585

    This cohort study examines whether early-life antibiotic use in children is associated with the long-term effects of breastfeeding on weight development and lifetime antibiotic use.

  • Association of Cesarean Delivery and Formula Supplementation With the Intestinal Microbiome of 6-Week-Old Infants

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(3):212-219. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3732

    This observational study examines the relative association of delivery mode and feeding method on infant intestinal microbiome composition at approximately 6 weeks of life.

  • JAMA Pediatrics June 1, 2015

    Figure 1: Massive Retroperitoneal Cystic Mass in an Adolescent

    A, Abdominal radiograph showing a paucity of bowel gas markings. B, Abdominal computed tomographic scan showing a massive retroperitoneal cystic lesion with displacement of abdominal organs and right moderate hydronephrosis.
  • JAMA Pediatrics April 1, 2013

    Figure: Effect of Intestinal Microbial Ecology on the Developing Brain

    Figure 1. Enteric nervous system, providing bidirectional communication between gastrointestinal cells and the central nervous system. Intestinal epithelial cells mediate interactions between gut bacteria and the central nervous system or the immune system. As bacteria (shown in green) in the intestine come into contact with receptors (shown in black) on the intestinal wall cell surface, the receptors transmit signals to the central nervous system via the vagus nerve pathways (curved arrow to central nervous system) and to the immune system (curved arrow) via Toll-like receptor pathways.
  • Effect of Intestinal Microbial Ecology on the Developing Brain

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    JAMA Pediatr. 2013; 167(4):374-379. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.497
    Douglas-Escobar and coauthors provide a brief review of the intestinal microbiome, with a focus on new studies showing that there is an important link between the microbes that inhabit the intestinal tract and the developing brain.
  • Novel Lipid-Based Approaches to Pediatric Intestinal Failure–Associated Liver Disease

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    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012; 166(5):473-478. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.1896
    Diamond et al review the use of lipid minimization and alternate intravenous lipid emulsions in the treatment of intestinal failure–associated liver disease.
  • Picture of the Month—Diagnosis

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    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011; 165(7):666-666. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.108-b
  • JAMA Pediatrics January 1, 2011

    Figure: Picture of the Month—Quiz Case

    One view of the abdomen revealing a massively dilated bowel.
  • Picture of the Month—Quiz Case

    Abstract Full Text
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    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011; 165(1):85-86. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.265-a
  • JAMA Pediatrics June 1, 2009

    Figure 1: Picture of the Month—Quiz Case

    Radiograph of the chest and upper abdomen showing bowel gas in the left mid-lower chest.
  • JAMA Pediatrics February 1, 2008

    Figure 3: Multiple Magnet Ingestion as a Source of Severe Gastrointestinal Complications Requiring Surgical Intervention

    Removing the adherent omentum revealed where the magnets (arrow) had eroded through the bowel walls.
  • JAMA Pediatrics February 1, 2008

    Figure 3: Picture of the Month—Quiz Case

    A barium enema was used for the diagnosis: “beaking” of 2 loops of adjacent bowel is shown, signifying a twist of the sigmoid colon.
  • JAMA Pediatrics February 1, 2008

    Figure 3: Picture of the Month—Diagnosis

    A barium enema was used for the diagnosis: “beaking” of 2 loops of adjacent bowel is shown, signifying a twist of the sigmoid colon.
  • Picture of the Month—Quiz Case

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    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008; 162(2):181-181. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2007.17-a
  • Picture of the Month—Diagnosis

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    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008; 162(2):182-182. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2007.17-b
  • Pathological Case of the Month

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    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002; 156(4):405-405. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.156.4.405
  • Pathological Case of the Month

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    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001; 155(6):737-738. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.155.6.737