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  • Comparative Safety of Antiretroviral Treatment Regimens in Pregnancy

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA Pediatr. 2017; 171(10):e172222. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.2222

    This birth surveillance study compares the risk for selected birth outcomes by maternal antiretroviral therapy regimen among pregnant women with HIV infection in Botswana.

  • Development of a Gestational Age–Specific Case Definition for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA Pediatr. 2017; 171(3):256-263. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.3633

    This population study aims to develop a gestational age–specific case definition for necrotizing enterocolitis.

  • JAMA Pediatrics March 1, 2017

    Figure 3: Association of Oxygen Use or Respiratory Support at 34 to 40 Weeks’ Postmenstrual Age With Adverse Outcomes at 18 to 21 Months of Age

    The second and third columns show the number of infants with adverse outcomes/the number of infants assessed at 18-21 months with percentages in brackets for infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) defined in the first column. The forest plots show the adjusted odds ratios (AORs; filled squares) and 95% CIs (lines). AUC indicates area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; Oxygen/RS, receiving supplemental oxygen and/or any respiratory positive-pressure support; PMA, postmenstrual age.aAdjusted for gestational age, sex, small for gestational age, Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology II score >20, maternal education, severe intraventricular hemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis.bComposite outcome was defined as serious respiratory morbidity and/or neurosensory impairment at 18 to 21 months’ corrected age, or death after neonatal intensive care unit discharge before 21 months’ corrected age.
  • JAMA Pediatrics March 1, 2017

    Figure 2: Associations of 6 Traditional Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) Definitions With Adverse Outcomes at 18 to 21 Months of Age

    The second and third columns show the number of infants with adverse outcomes/the number of infants assessed at 18 to 21 months, with percentages in brackets for infants with or without BPD defined in the first column. The forest plots show the adjusted odds ratios (AORs; filled squares) and 95% CIs (lines). AUC indicates area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; Oxygen/RS, receiving supplemental oxygen and/or any respiratory positive-pressure support; PMA, postmenstrual age.aAdjusted for gestational age, sex, small for gestational age, Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology II score >20, maternal education, severe intraventricular hemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis.bComposite outcome was defined as serious respiratory morbidity and/or neurosensory impairment at 18 to 21 months’ corrected age or death after neonatal intensive care unit discharge before 21 months’ corrected age.
  • Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Among Extremely Preterm Infants 6.5 Years After Active Perinatal Care in Sweden

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(10):954-963. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.1210

    This national cohort study characterizes neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 6.5 years of children who had extreme preterm births (<27 weeks) in Sweden.

  • Long-term Cognitive and Health Outcomes of School-Aged Children Who Were Born Late-Term vs Full-Term

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(8):758-764. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0238

    This population-based observational study compares the cognitive and physical outcomes of school-aged children who were born full-term or late-term.

  • JAMA Pediatrics June 1, 2016

    Figure 1: Frequency of Exposure to Antenatal Corticosteroids (ANS) by Gestational Age and Year of Birth Among Multiples

    Cells with fewer than 20 infants per gestational age per year of birth are not reported.
  • JAMA Pediatrics June 1, 2016

    Figure 2: Adjusted Relative Risks (RRs) of Outcomes by Gestational Age (GA) at 22 to 28 Weeks

    Models adjusted for center, year of birth, maternal age (≤19 vs ≥20 years), sex, race/ethnicity (black, white, or other), marital status, diabetes, hypertension, small for gestational age, and rupture of membrane more than 24 hours before birth. Regression for neurodevelopmental impairment or death also adjusts for epoch and maternal education. The error bars indicate 95% CIs. aNot adjusted for center; model did not converge with center included.
  • The Problem and Promise of Prognosis Research

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(5):411-412. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.4871

    This Viewpoint explains the importance of prognosis as a link between diagnosis and therapy in medical practice and points out difficulties in prognosis research.

  • JAMA Pediatrics April 4, 2016

    Figure 2: Scatterplots and Linear Regression Lines of Change in the Log of Fractional Anisotropy and the Log of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient

    Scatterplots and linear regression lines of change in the fractional anisotropy in white matter voxels (A) and apparent diffusion coefficient in gray matter voxels (B) demonstrate a faster rate of increase in fractional anisotropy (P = .04) and a faster rate of decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (P = .02) in patients with prenatal diagnosis of critical congenital heart disease than in those with postnatal diagnosis. Time is defined as the gestational age when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed (includes both preoperative and postoperative scans).
  • JAMA Pediatrics March 1, 2016

    Figure: Kaplan-Meier Survival Curves for Small and Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants in the Surfactant, Positive Pressure and Pulse Oximetry Randomized Trial by Randomized Oxygen Saturation Strata

    A, Small for gestational age infants randomized to the lower oxygen target (shown in tan) had significantly poorer survival than those randomized to the higher oxygen target (shown in blue). B, Appropriate for gestational age infants had similar mortality between the 2 oxygen strata.
  • JAMA Pediatrics December 1, 2015

    Figure 3: Evidence Synthesis of Risk Factors for Global Cognitive Impairment in Children Born Very Preterm or With Very Low Birth Weight

    Prognostic factors are presented if significant (P < .05) in the final model of at least 1 study with low-to-moderate risk of bias and entered into the final model of at least 3 studies (across all ages). A through T indicate study identifiers listed in Table 1 and Table 2 (* denotes an extremely preterm cohort); SES, socioeconomic status.aNonwhite (B and E), black (C), or Afro-Caribbean (G).bIntraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia (B, C, D, F, H, I, L, M, O, S, and T), periventricular leukomalacia or ventricular dilatation (R), intraventricular hemorrhage grades 2 to 4 (A), parenchymal lesion (Q), intraventricular hemorrhage grades 1 to 3, echodensities, ventricular dilatation, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, or intraparenchymal hemorrhage (N).cAny high-frequency (B), any mechanical ventilation (J), or mechanical ventilation days (C, F, I, Q, S, and T).dPerforated necrotizing enterocolitis (A), necrotizing enterocolitis stages 2 to 3 (C and F), surgical or radiograph diagnosed (J), bowel perforation or necrotizing enterocolitis (T), or not specified (H, L, and N).eOxygen requirement at 36 weeks’ gestational age (B, D, F, G, J, L, M, N, O, and R) or not specified (H and P).fMore than 24 hours before labor (G) or not specified (A and F).gStage 3 to 4 (I, K, and L), at least stage 3 with laser therapy (F), or stage 4 to 5 or treatment with cryotherapy or laser therapy (O).hIncrease in head circumference from discharge to 5 years (I), occipitofrontal circumference 7-year centile (Q), or increase in head circumference less than 6 mm per week (T).
  • JAMA Pediatrics November 1, 2015

    Figure: Adjusted Probability of Developing Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)

    Probabilities are based on the cumulative duration of mechanical ventilation for infants exposed to 1, 2, 3, or 4 or more separate courses of mechanical ventilation and are adjusted for birth weight, gestational age, small for gestation age, sex, birth year, surfactant exposure, postnatal dexamethasone treatment, patent ductus arteriosus treatment, bacterial sepsis, and diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis. Plots were generated using locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS).
  • JAMA Pediatrics September 1, 2015

    Figure 2: Trends in the Composition of Level III and IV NICU Admissions by Newborn Risk Factors

    A, Proportion of admissions by birth weight. B, Proportion of admissions by gestational age. C, Proportion of admissions by weight for gestational age. D, Proportion of admissions by use of assisted ventilation.
  • Adverse Events After Routine Immunization of Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(8):740-745. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0418

    This cohort study found an increase in adverse events after immunization of extremely low-birth-weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  • Differentiating Sepsis From Adverse Events After Immunization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: How Is a Physician to Know?

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(8):718-719. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0759
  • A Risk-Adjusted, Composite Outcomes Score and Resource Utilization Metrics for Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(5):459-465. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.3566

    This Vermont Oxford Network study describes a new web-based tool for neonatal intensive care units to calculate composite morbidity and resource use.

  • Keeping Up With Outcomes for Infants Born at Extremely Low Gestational Ages

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(3):207-208. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.3362
  • Survival and Morbidity of Preterm Children Born at 22 Through 34 Weeks’ Gestation in France in 2011: Results of the EPIPAGE-2 Cohort Study

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(3):230-238. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.3351

    This national, prospective, population-based cohort study found substantial survival improvement in survival and a reduction in severe morbidity for newborns born at 25 through 31 weeks’ gestation.