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The last 2 decades have seen tremendous growth in the reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). They have moved from a relatively rare condition (perhaps 1 in 10 000) to a recently calculated 1 in 68 rate in the United States.1 The rapid rise has led to ...

Editorial  FREE
Lucila Marquez, MD, MPH; Debra L. Palazzi, MD, MEd

In this issue of JAMA Pediatrics, Shaikh et al1 report that early antibiotic treatment was associated with decreased risk of renal scarring in children with a first or second febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). The authors found that in children with renal scarring, the median duration ...

Original Investigation 
Anna Sara Oberg, PhD; Brian M. D’Onofrio, PhD; Martin E. Rickert, PhD; Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, DrPH; Jeffrey L. Ecker, MD; Catarina Almqvist, PhD; Henrik Larsson, PhD; Paul Lichtenstein, PhD; Brian T. Bateman, MD

Importance  Induction of labor is a frequently performed obstetrical intervention. It would thus be of great concern if reported associations between labor induction and offspring risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) reflected causal influence.

Objective  To assess the associations of labor induction with ASD, comparing differentially ...

Original Investigation 
George Sam Wang, MD; Marie-Claire Le Lait, MS; Sara J. Deakyne, MPH; Alvin C. Bronstein, MD; Lalit Bajaj, MD, MPH; Genie Roosevelt, MD, MPH

Importance  As of 2015, almost half of US states allow medical marijuana, and 4 states allow recreational marijuana. To our knowledge, the effect of recreational marijuana on the pediatric population has not been evaluated.

Objective  To compare the incidence of pediatric marijuana exposures evaluated at a ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Nader Shaikh, MD, MPH; Tej K. Mattoo, MD; Ron Keren, MD; Anastasia Ivanova, PhD; Gang Cui, MPH; Marva Moxey-Mims, MD; Massoud Majd, MD; Harvey A. Ziessman, MD; Alejandro Hoberman, MD

Importance  Existing data regarding the association between delayed initiation of antimicrobial therapy and the development of renal scarring are inconsistent.

Objective  To determine whether delay in the initiation of antimicrobial therapy for febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) is associated with the occurrence and severity of renal ...

Editorial: Antibiotic Treatment for Febrile Urinary Tract Infection The Clock is Ticking; Lucila Marquez, MD, MPH; Debra L. Palazzi, MD, MEd
Research Letter 
Jenna L. Streicher, MD; E. Brooks Riley, BA; Leslie A. Castelo-Soccio, MD, PhD

This study evaluates the cost of routine pretreatment electrocardiogram screening and determines whether testing led to significant management changes for 198 patients evaluated for initiation of treatment with propranolol over a 2-year period.

Comment & Response 
Victor Kieu, BS; Shadi Rezai, MD; Cassandra E. Henderson, MD, CDE

To the Editor There is a preconception that children who participate in activities outside the standard regulations of a stable household are predominantly juvenile delinquents.1 Embleton et al2 present a large, generalized study with statistical depth that illuminates the environmental factors giving rise to millions of ...

Comment & Response 
Lonnie Embleton, MPH; Paula Braitstein, PhD

In Reply We thank the authors for their thoughtful letter and for identifying a major issue not well addressed in the literature about child and youth street involvement: mental health. Without a doubt, mental illness and poor psychosocial health affect children and youths who find themselves homeless. Children ...

Editorial 
Rosemary D. Higgins, MD; Ravi Mangal Patel, MD, MSc; Cassandra D. Josephson, MD

In this issue, Goobie et al1 describe an independent association of preoperative anemia, defined as a hematocrit level less than 40%, with higher in-hospital mortality in neonates. Preoperative anemia was 1 of several independent risk factors associated with postoperative mortality; the others were American Society of Anesthesiologists ...

Original Investigation 
Carmen C. Pace, PhD; Alicia J. Spittle, PhD; Charlotte M.-L. Molesworth, MBiostat; Katherine J. Lee, PhD; Elisabeth A. Northam, PhD; Jeanie L. Y. Cheong, MD; Peter G. Davis, MD; Lex W. Doyle, MD; Karli Treyvaud, DPsych; Peter J. Anderson, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Mothers experience heightened depression and anxiety following very preterm (VPT) birth, but how these symptoms evolve during the first months after birth is unknown. Research on the psychological adjustment of fathers following VPT birth is limited.

Objectives  To describe the trajectory and predictors of distress ...

Original Investigation 
Susan M. Goobie, MD, FRCPC; David Faraoni, MD, PhD; David Zurakowski, PhD; James A. DiNardo, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  Neonates undergoing noncardiac surgery are at risk for adverse outcomes. Preoperative anemia is a strong independent risk factor for postoperative mortality in adults. To our knowledge, this association has not been investigated in the neonatal population.

Objective  To assess the association between preoperative anemia and ...

Editorial: Preoperative Anemia and Neonates; Rosemary D. Higgins, MD; Ravi Mangal Patel, MD, MSc; Cassandra D. Josephson, MD
Original Investigation 
Justin R. Ryder, PhD; Nicholas M. Edwards, MD, MPH; Resmi Gupta, MS, MA; Jane Khoury, PhD; Todd M. Jenkins, PhD; Sharon Bout-Tabaku, MD, MSCE; Marc P. Michalsky, MD; Carroll M. Harmon, MD, PhD; Thomas H. Inge, MD, PhD; Aaron S. Kelly, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Severe obesity is associated with mobility limitations and higher incidence of multijoint musculoskeletal pain. It is unknown whether substantial weight loss improves these important outcomes in adolescents with severe obesity.

Objective  To examine the association of bariatric surgery with functional mobility and musculoskeletal pain in ...

Special Communication 
Corstiaan C. Breugem, MD, PhD; Kelly N. Evans, MD; Christian F. Poets, MD, PhD; Sunjay Suri, MDS, MOrthRCS; Arnaud Picard, MD, PhD; Charles Filip, MD, PhD; Emma C. Paes, MD, PhD; Felicity V. Mehendale, MS, FRCS(Plast); Howard M. Saal, MD; Hanneke Basart, MD, PhD; Jyotsna Murthy, MD; Koen F. M. Joosten, MD, PhD; Lucienne Speleman, MD; Marcus V. M. Collares, MD, PhD; Marie-José H. van den Boogaard, MD, PhD; Marvick Muradin, MD, DMD, PhD; Maud Els-Marie Andersson, PhD; Mikihiko Kogo, DDS, PhD; Peter G. Farlie, PhD; Peter Don Griot, MD, PhD; Peter A. Mossey, BDS, PhD; Rona Slator, DPhil, FRCS, FRCS(Plast); Veronique Abadie, MD, PhD; Paul Hong, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Robin sequence (RS) is a congenital condition characterized by micrognathia, glossoptosis, and upper airway obstruction. Currently, no consensus exists regarding the diagnosis and evaluation of children with RS. An international, multidisciplinary consensus group was formed to begin to overcome this limitation.

Objective  To report a ...

Viewpoint 
Jason M. Nagata, MD, MSc; Jennifer T. Djafari, MD; Lisa J. Chamberlain, MD, MPH

This Viewpoint proposes the option of replacing the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children fruit juice supplements with fresh fruits and vegetables.

Editorial 
Jay G. Berry, MD, MPH

In recent decades, there has been a large number of initiatives developed to measure and report the quality of health care, with expectation that the results would galvanize myriad efforts to optimize the performance of the US health care system.1 These initiatives have been particularly focused on ...

Original Investigation 
Jeffrey H. Silber, MD, PhD; Paul R. Rosenbaum, PhD; Wei Wang, PhD; Justin M. Ludwig, MA; Shawna Calhoun, MPH; James P. Guevara, MD, MPH; Joseph J. Zorc, MD, MSCE; Ashley Zeigler, BA; Orit Even-Shoshan, MS
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Asthma is the most prevalent chronic illness among children, remaining a leading cause of pediatric hospitalizations and representing a major financial burden to many health care systems.

Objective  To implement a new auditing process examining whether differences in hospital practice style may be associated with ...

Editorial: My Hospital's Performance on Quality of Care ; Jay G. Berry, MD, MPH
Original Investigation 
David S. Mandell, ScD; Colleen L. Barry, PhD, MPP; Steven C. Marcus, PhD; Ming Xie, MS; Kathleen Shea, BA; Katherine Mullan, MA; Andrew J. Epstein, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Most states have passed insurance mandates requiring commercial health plans to cover services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Insurers have expressed concerns that these mandates will increase the number of children diagnosed with ASD (treated prevalence) and therefore increase costs associated with their care. ...

Comment & Response 
Benjamin Katz, MS; Priti Shah, PhD

To the Editor Roberts et al1 present the results of a randomized clinical trial comparing a commercially available working memory (WM) intervention, Cogmed (Pearson), with an education-as-usual control for children screened for low WM capacity. Although they found some improvements in WM, there was no benefit on ...

Comment & Response 
Gehan Roberts, PhD

In Reply We thank Katz and Shah for their interest and their comments and would like to respond to their concerns.

Viewpoint 
Meredith L. Rowe, EdD; Barry Zuckerman, MD

This Viewpoint discusses features of communication between parents and children that promote children’s language acquisition.

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