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 Showing 21-40 of 49 Articles
Correction  FREE

In the Research Letter titled “California Senate Bill 277’s Grandfather Clause and Nonmedical Vaccine Exemptions in California, 2015-2022,”1 published online March 28, 2016, there was an error in the Table. The number (%) of nonmedical exemptions for the 2015 kindergarten population should be 13 086 (2.37). This number ...

Viewpoint 
Matthew B. Wallenstein, MD; Gary M. Shaw, DrPH; David K. Stevenson, MD

This Viewpoint discusses preterm birth and the need to link and integrate epidemiologic to genetic and cellular data to look for predictive, diagnostic, and causal pathways that might be safely targeted for prevention or amelioration.

Original Investigation 
Thomas J. Sandora, MD, MPH; Monica Fung, MD; Patrice Melvin, MPH; Dionne A. Graham, PhD; Shawn J. Rangel, MD, MSCE
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Appropriate use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) reduces surgical site infection rates, but prior data suggest variability in use patterns.

Objective  To assess national variability and appropriateness of AP in pediatric surgical patients.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Retrospective cohort study of 31 freestanding children’s ...

Original Investigation 
Corinne G. Brooks, MD, MS; Wade N. Harrison, MPH; Shawn L. Ralston, MD, MS
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Two previous meta-analyses of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) on hospital length of stay (LOS) in acute viral bronchiolitis have suggested benefit. Neither study fully addressed the issue of excessive heterogeneity in the cohort of studies, indicating that it may be inappropriate to combine such dissimilar studies ...

Original Investigation 
Nansi S. Boghossian, PhD, MPH; Scott A. McDonald, BS; Edward F. Bell, MD; Waldemar A. Carlo, MD; Jane E. Brumbaugh, MD; Barbara J. Stoll, MD; Abbot R. Laptook, MD; Seetha Shankaran, MD; Michele C. Walsh, MD; Abhik Das, PhD; Rosemary D. Higgins, MD; for the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Little is known about the effects of antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) on extremely preterm multiples.

Objective  To examine if use of ANS is associated with improvement in major outcomes in extremely preterm multiples.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Infants with a gestational age between 22 and ...

Comment & Response 
Philip N. Britton, MBBS, FRACP

To the Editor Thank you for publishing the study of Milcent et al1 reporting the test characteristics of procalcitonin for the assessment of febrile infants. The authors should be congratulated on this large, observational study and their detailed analysis; in particular, I am pleased at their decision ...

Comment & Response 
James W. Antoon, MD, PhD; Michael J. Steiner, MD, MPH

To the Editor We commend Milcent et al1 on their prospective study on the use of procalcitonin in the diagnosis of serious bacterial infections in infants. We believe there are 3 issues that limit applicability of the study as presented.

Comment & Response 
Karen Milcent, MD, PhD; Vincent Gajdos, MD, PhD

In Reply We thank Britton and Antoon and Steiner for their comments that gave us the opportunity to clarify a number of points on our work. First, we confirm that bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and urinary tract infection were mutually exclusive and that of the 8 cases of bacterial ...

Correction  FREE

In the Original Investigation titled “Use of Procalcitonin Assays to Predict Serious Bacterial Infection in Young Febrile Infants,” published online November 23, 2015, and also in the January 2016 issue of JAMA Pediatrics,1 there was an error in the Figure. The y-axis should read as “Sensitivity.” ...

Viewpoint 
Tessy A. Thomas, DO, MBE; Laurence B. McCullough, PhD

This Viewpoint discusses the effects on clinicians of repeated exposure to morally distressing cases, in the context of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

In this issue of JAMA Pediatrics, Kuzniewicz et al1 describe the consequences of an in vitro diagnostics manufacturer altering the values assigned to their calibrators for the determination of neonatal bilirubin concentrations. Notable in the study are the sizes of the prerecalibration population (n = 61 945) and postrecalibration ...

Original Investigation 
Sarah L. Reeves, PhD; Brian Madden, MS; Gary L. Freed, MD; Kevin J. Dombkowski, DrPH

Importance  With transcranial Doppler (TCD) screening, we can identify children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia who are at the highest risk of stroke. An accurate claims-based method for identifying children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia was recently developed and validated that establishes the necessary groundwork ...

Original Investigation 
Michael W. Kuzniewicz, MD, MPH; Dina N. Greene, PhD; Eileen M. Walsh, RN, MPH; Charles E. McCulloch, PhD; Thomas B. Newman, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  The American Academy of Pediatrics treatment recommendations for neonatal jaundice are based on age-specific total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels. In May 2012, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics adjusted the calibrator values for Vitros Chemistry Products BuBc Slides (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics), a widely used method to quantify TSB, after ...

Editorial: Laboratory Accuracy in Neonatal Bilirubin; Stanley F. Lo, PhD
Original Investigation 
Soma Kumar, MD; Chee Y. Ooi, MBBS, PhD; Steven Werlin, MD; Maisam Abu-El-Haija, MD; Bradley Barth, MD; Melena D. Bellin, MD; Peter R. Durie, MD; Douglas S. Fishman, MD; Steven D. Freedman, MD, PhD; Cheryl Gariepy, MD; Matthew J. Giefer, MD; Tanja Gonska, MD; Melvin B. Heyman, MD, MPH; Ryan Himes, MD; Sohail Z. Husain, MD; Tom K. Lin, MD; Mark E. Lowe, MD, PhD; Veronique Morinville, MD; Joseph J. Palermo, MD, PhD; John F. Pohl, MD; Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg, MD; David Troendle, MD; Michael Wilschanski, MD; M. Bridget Zimmerman, PhD; Aliye Uc, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Pediatric acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) are poorly understood.

Objective  To characterize and identify risk factors associated with ARP and CP in childhood.

Design, Setting, and Participants  A multinational cross-sectional study of children with ARP or CP at the time of ...

Viewpoint 
Heather McCallum Hahn, PhD, MPP; Julia B. Isaacs, MPP; C. Eugene Steuerle, PhD

This Viewpoint answers questions about the declining children’s share of the federal budget and raises concerns about children’s health and well-being.

Editorial 
John M. Kelso, MD

Although β-lactam antibiotics are the most common cause of drug allergy, most patients who are labeled as being allergic to penicillin are not, either because they were never sensitized or because they have lost their allergy over time.1 Although 6% of children are labeled as being allergic ...

Original Investigation 
Jeffrey R. Botkin, MD, MPH; Erin Rothwell, PhD; Rebecca A. Anderson, RN, PhD; Nancy C. Rose, MD; Siobhan M. Dolan, MD, MPH; Miriam Kuppermann, PhD, MPH; Louisa A. Stark, PhD; Aaron Goldenberg, PhD; Bob Wong, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Research clearly indicates that current approaches to newborn blood spot screening (NBS) education are ineffective. Incorporating NBS education into prenatal care is broadly supported by lay and professional opinion.

Objective  To determine the efficacy and effect of prenatal education about newborn screening and use of ...

Original Investigation 
Sheree L. Boulet, DrPH, MPH; Russell S. Kirby, PhD; Jennita Reefhuis, PhD; Yujia Zhang, PhD; Saswati Sunderam, PhD; Bruce Cohen, PhD; Dana Bernson, MPH; Glenn Copeland, MBA; Marie A. Bailey, MA, MSW; Denise J. Jamieson, MD, MPH; Dmitry M. Kissin, MD, MPH; for the States Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (SMART) Collaborative

Importance  Use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been associated with increased risks for birth defects. Variations in birth defect risks according to type of ART procedure have been noted, but findings are inconsistent.

Objectives  To examine the prevalence of birth defects among liveborn infants conceived ...

Original Investigation 
Christopher Mill, MPH; Marie-Noël Primeau, MD; Elaine Medoff, MD; Christine Lejtenyi, MD; Andrew O’Keefe, MD; Elena Netchiporouk, MD; Alizee Dery, BSc; Moshe Ben-Shoshan, MD, MSc

Importance  The diagnostic properties of a graded provocation challenge (PC) among children presenting with a rash in the course of amoxicillin treatment are currently unknown.

Objective  To assess the accuracy and the negative predictive value of the PC in a cohort of children referred with suspected ...

Viewpoint  FREE
Esper G. Kallas, MD, PhD; David H. O’Connor, PhD

This Viewpoint discusses real-time sharing of data on Zika virus during a public health emergency.

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