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 Showing 21-40 of 43 Articles
Research Letter 
Jacob Wallace, BA; Benjamin D. Sommers, MD, PhD
Beginning September 23, 2010, the dependent coverage expansion in the Affordable Care Act allowed adults younger than 26 years to obtain insurance through their parents. In a JAMA Pediatrics article, Kotagal and colleagues1 concluded that this provision had “limited impact on health and access.” We reassessed this question using the ...
Maryanne Crockett, MD, MPH, FRCPC, DTM&H; Lisa Avery, MD, MIH, FRCPC; James Blanchard, MD, MPH, PhD
In 2000, leaders from 189 countries set forth Millennium Development Goals, 2 of which focused on significant reductions in child mortality and maternal mortality by 2015. Despite substantial progress toward these goals, many countries are lagging, with increasing disparity among countries with differing resources. There is a strong consensus that ...
Alexander G. Fiks, MD, MSCE
Accelerated by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which channeled $19 billion in federal money to promote the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs),1 health information technology is increasingly available and able to support the delivery of high-quality health care. Nearly 80% of pediatric practices now have EHRs.2 ...
Kristy D. M. Wittmeier, PhD, PT; Terry P. Klassen, MSc, MD; Kathryn M. Sibley, PhD
Original Investigation 
Allison Kempe, MD, MPH; Alison W. Saville, MSPH, MSW; L. Miriam Dickinson, PhD; Brenda Beaty, MSPH; Sheri Eisert, PhD; Dennis Gurfinkel, MPH; Sarah Brewer, MPA; Heather Shull, MA; Diana Herrero, MS; Rachel Herlihy, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Reminder/recall notifications used by primary care practices increase the rates of childhood immunizations, but fewer than 20% of primary care practitioners nationally deliver such reminders. A reminder/recall notification conducted centrally by health departments in collaboration with primary care practices may reduce practice burden, reach children without ...

Editorial: Centralized Collaborative Reminder/Recall; Alexander G. Fiks, MD, MSCE
Original Investigation 
Kanwaljeet J. S. Anand, MBBS, DPhil; Robert J. Sepanski, MS; Kimberley Giles, MBA, MSHA; Samir H. Shah, MD, MBA, FRCPC; Paul D. Juarez, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Research on health equity has focused on documenting health care disparities or understanding factors leading to disparities, but limited efforts have focused on reducing health care disparities in children. Latino children have increased prevalence of acute and chronic conditions; they have limited access and other barriers ...

Original Investigation 
Alexander Gutfraind, PhD; Alison P. Galvani, PhD; Lauren Ancel Meyers, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Infection with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalizations in children, accounting for more than 90 000 hospitalizations every year in the United States. For children who are at risk for severe RSV infections, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends immunoprophylaxis with a ...

Tremendous progress has been made in reducing the mortality rates for young children, especially in low- and middle-income countries, with annual deaths down from 12.6 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013.1 Although it is unlikely that number 4 (reduce child mortality) of the Millennium Development Goals set by ...
Original Investigation 
Rafael Mikolajczyk, MD, PhD; Johannes Horn, Dipl Biomath; Niklas Schmedt, MA; Ingo Langner, PhD; Christina Lindemann, MSc; Edeltraut Garbe, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of injuries. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is often treated with medication, but the evidence regarding prevention of injuries is inconclusive.

Objective  To determine via a case-only design whether the use of methylphenidate hydrochloride or atomoxetine hydrochloride ...

Original Investigation 
Manoj Mohanan, PhD; Marcos Vera-Hernández, PhD; Veena Das, PhD; Soledad Giardili, MA; Jeremy D. Goldhaber-Fiebert, PhD; Tracy L. Rabin, MD; Sunil S. Raj, MD; Jeremy I. Schwartz, MD; Aparna Seth, MBA
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  In rural India, as in many developing countries, childhood mortality remains high and the quality of health care available is low. Improving care in such settings, where most health care practitioners do not have formal training, requires an assessment of the practitioners’ knowledge of appropriate care ...

Editorial: International Maternal and Child Health Care Gaps; James M. Tielsch, PhD
Original Investigation 
Rinad S. Beidas, PhD; Steven Marcus, PhD; Gregory A. Aarons, PhD; Kimberly E. Hoagwood, PhD; Sonja Schoenwald, PhD; Arthur C. Evans, PhD; Matthew O. Hurford, MD; Trevor Hadley, PhD; Frances K. Barg, PhD, MEd; Lucia M. Walsh, BS; Danielle R. Adams, BA; David S. Mandell, ScD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Few studies have examined the effects of individual and organizational characteristics on the use of evidence-based practices in mental health care. Improved understanding of these factors could guide future implementation efforts to ensure effective adoption, implementation, and sustainment of evidence-based practices.

Objective  To estimate the ...

Martha Douglas-Escobar, MD; Michael D. Weiss, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) occurs in 1 to 8 per 1000 live births in developed countries. Historically, the clinician has had little to offer neonates with HIE other than systemic supportive care. Recently, the neuroprotective therapy of hypothermia has emerged as the standard of care, and other ...

Viewpoint  FREE
Douglas J. Opel, MD, MPH; Saad B. Omer, MBBS, MPH, PhD
This Viewpoint discusses vaccination policy and the debate between protecting individual choice and promoting public health in the context of the current measles outbreak.
John V. Campo, MD; Jeffrey A. Bridge, PhD; Cynthia A. Fontanella, PhD
This Viewpoint discusses access to mental health services for children through primary care.
Andrea J. Apter, MD, MSc, MA
Adherence to medications is critical but often suboptimal in asthma and other chronic diseases.1 Intervention studies, particularly those that reflect the real world, are essential for understanding and addressing adherence because it is the real-world setting that defines the barriers to adherence. However, most studies are observational and those that ...
Anne Synnes, MDCM, MHSc, FRCPC; Steven P. Miller, MDCM, MAS, FRCPC
Oxygen is the most commonly used “drug” for preterm babies. Oxygen is essential for life. Yet, the too-liberal use of oxygen is toxic.1- 4 The Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomized Trial, the Benefits of Oxygen Saturation Targeting trials, and the Canadian Oxygen Trial (all randomized clinical controlled trials) sought ...
Original Investigation 
Bruce G. Bender, PhD; Peter J. Cvietusa, MD; Glenn K. Goodrich, MS; Ryan Lowe, PharmD; Heather A. Nuanes, BA; Cynthia Rand, PhD; Susan Shetterly, MS; Cathy Tacinas, RN; William M. Vollmer, PhD; Nicole Wagner, MPH; Frederick S. Wamboldt, MD; Stanley Xu, PhD; David J. Magid, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Most patients with asthma take fewer than half of prescribed doses of controller medication. Interventions to improve adherence have typically been costly, impractical, and at best only minimally successful.

Objective  To test a speech recognition (SR) intervention to improve adherence to pediatric asthma controller medication....

Editorial: Understanding Adherence Requires Pragmatic Trials; Andrea J. Apter, MD, MSc, MA
Original Investigation 
Veena Manja, MD; Satyan Lakshminrusimha, MD; Deborah J. Cook, MSc, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  The optimal oxygen saturation (SpO2) target for extremely preterm infants is unknown.

Objective  To systematically review evidence evaluating the effect of restricted vs liberal oxygen exposure on morbidity and mortality in extremely preterm infants.

Data Sources  MEDLINE, PubMed, CENTRAL, and CINAHL databases ...

Editorial: Oxygen Therapy for Preterm Neonates; Anne Synnes, MDCM, MHSc, FRCPC; Steven P. Miller, MDCM, MAS, FRCPC
Kavita Parikh, MD, MSHS; Shantanu Agrawal, MD, MPhil
This Viewpoint supports establishing superior benchmarks of care in clinical practice. Establishing achievable excellence is an approach that encourages improvement while not demanding unrealistic or potentially adverse outcomes.
Original Investigation 
Monica I. Ardura, DO, MSCS; Jeffrey Lewis, RN, MBOE, LSSBB; Jessica L. Tansmore, PharmD; Patricia L. Harp, RN; Molly C. Dienhart, MD; Jane P. Balint, MD

Importance  Children with intestinal failure are at high risk for developing central catheter–associated bloodstream infections (CCABSIs) owing to children’s chronic dependence on central venous catheters for parenteral nutrition.

Objective  To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the addition of ethanol lock prophylaxis to a best-practice CCABSI ...

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