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 Showing 21-40 of 58 Articles
Colette L. Auerswald, MD, MS; Ariella Goldblatt, MS

The 1.8 billion children and youths 10 to 24 years of age living on our planet today outnumber the total global population during the time of the Great Depression. The health status and economic trajectory of this largest-ever cohort of children and youth will determine the health and ...

John M. Kelso, MD

Although β-lactam antibiotics are the most common cause of drug allergy, most patients who are labeled as being allergic to penicillin are not, either because they were never sensitized or because they have lost their allergy over time.1 Although 6% of children are labeled as being allergic ...

Original Investigation 
Jeffrey R. Botkin, MD, MPH; Erin Rothwell, PhD; Rebecca A. Anderson, RN, PhD; Nancy C. Rose, MD; Siobhan M. Dolan, MD, MPH; Miriam Kuppermann, PhD, MPH; Louisa A. Stark, PhD; Aaron Goldenberg, PhD; Bob Wong, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Research clearly indicates that current approaches to newborn blood spot screening (NBS) education are ineffective. Incorporating NBS education into prenatal care is broadly supported by lay and professional opinion.

Objective  To determine the efficacy and effect of prenatal education about newborn screening and use of ...

Original Investigation 
Sheree L. Boulet, DrPH, MPH; Russell S. Kirby, PhD; Jennita Reefhuis, PhD; Yujia Zhang, PhD; Saswati Sunderam, PhD; Bruce Cohen, PhD; Dana Bernson, MPH; Glenn Copeland, MBA; Marie A. Bailey, MA, MSW; Denise J. Jamieson, MD, MPH; Dmitry M. Kissin, MD, MPH; for the States Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (SMART) Collaborative

Importance  Use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been associated with increased risks for birth defects. Variations in birth defect risks according to type of ART procedure have been noted, but findings are inconsistent.

Objectives  To examine the prevalence of birth defects among liveborn infants conceived ...

Original Investigation 
Christopher Mill, MPH; Marie-Noël Primeau, MD; Elaine Medoff, MD; Christine Lejtenyi, MD; Andrew O’Keefe, MD; Elena Netchiporouk, MD; Alizee Dery, BSc; Moshe Ben-Shoshan, MD, MSc

Importance  The diagnostic properties of a graded provocation challenge (PC) among children presenting with a rash in the course of amoxicillin treatment are currently unknown.

Objective  To assess the accuracy and the negative predictive value of the PC in a cohort of children referred with suspected ...

Original Investigation 
Lonnie Embleton, MPH; Hana Lee, PhD; Jayleen Gunn, PhD; David Ayuku, PhD; Paula Braitstein, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  A systematic compilation of children and youth’s reported reasons for street involvement is lacking. Without empirical data on these reasons, the policies developed or implemented to mitigate street involvement are not responsive to the needs of these children and youth.

Objective  To systematically analyze the ...

Editorial: Stigmatizing Beliefs Regarding Street-Connected Children and Youth; Colette L. Auerswald, MD, MS; Ariella Goldblatt, MS
Viewpoint  FREE
Esper G. Kallas, MD, PhD; David H. O’Connor, PhD

This Viewpoint discusses real-time sharing of data on Zika virus during a public health emergency.

Y. Tony Yang, ScD, LLM, MPH; Christine M. Baugh, MPH

This Viewpoint provides an overview of US Soccer’s initiatives to improve concussion awareness and management.

Mark H. Sawyer, MD

The microorganisms that cause infectious diseases have a way of humbling us. Just as we think we have a problem solved, the microbes outsmart us. Penicillin was a miracle in 1943 when it was first mass produced. By 1947 the bacteria had already developed penicillin resistance. We are ...

Importance  There is accumulating literature on waning acellular pertussis vaccine–induced immunity, confirming the results of studies assessing the duration of protection of pertussis vaccines.

Objective  To evaluate the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine’s effect over time among those 11 to 18 ...

Editorial: The Pertussis Problem and a Possible Solution; Mark H. Sawyer, MD
Original Investigation 
Haedi DeAngelis, MA; Samuel V. Scarpino, PhD; Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, PhD; Alison P. Galvani, PhD; Benjamin M. Althouse, PhD, ScM
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Current acellular pertussis vaccines may not protect against transmission of Bordetella pertussis.

Objective  To assess whether a priming dose of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine is cost-effective at reducing pertussis infection in infants.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Mathematical model of pertussis transmission fit to ...

Editorial: The Pertussis Problem and a Possible Solution; Mark H. Sawyer, MD

Importance  Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by an excess in androgen levels, ovarian dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian morphology but is also associated with metabolic dysfunction and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. To our knowledge, there are few therapeutic recommendations for these cardiometabolic risk factors and little evidence ...

Research Letter 
Paul L. Delamater, PhD; Timothy F. Leslie, PhD; Y. Tony Yang, ScD, LLM, MPH

This study provides estimates of the effects of a grandfather clause in a California state law on nonmedical vaccine exemptions in California’s schools

Transgender visibility during the past 5 years has reached an all-time high, as evidenced by increased media coverage, an upswing in clinical practice interest, and a moderate increase in transgender research funding dollars. Additionally, for the first time, the approach to the care of transgender youth has become ...

Frederick P. Rivara, MD, MPH

Editing the oldest pediatric journal in the world is a unique privilege for which we are enormously grateful. It is made possible by the efforts of many, many people, starting with authors who entrust us with the intellectual products of their work. In 2015, we had an all-time ...

Original Investigation 
Ana Maria De Bernardi Rodrigues, RN, MSc; Cleliani de Cassia da Silva, RD, MSc; Ana Carolina Junqueira Vasques, RD, PhD; Daniella Fernandes Camilo, RD, MSc; Francieli Barreiro, RD, MSc; Roberta Soares Lara Cassani, RD, PhD; Mariana Porto Zambon, MD, PhD; Maria Ângela Reis de Góes Monteiro Antonio, MD, PhD; Bruno Geloneze, MD, PhD; for the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS) Investigators

Importance  The association between short sleep duration and decreased insulin sensitivity in adolescents has been described. However, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated this association measuring insulin sensitivity by the hyperglycemic clamp technique.

Objectives  To compare the distributions of parameters of insulin resistance in adolescents ...

Original Investigation 
Sari L. Reisner, ScD; Katie B. Biello, PhD, MPH; Jaclyn M. White Hughto, MPH; Lisa Kuhns, PhD, MPH; Kenneth H. Mayer, MD; Robert Garofalo, MD, MPH; Matthew J. Mimiaga, ScD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  Transgender youth, including adolescent and young adult transgender women assigned a male sex at birth who identify as girls, women, transgender women, transfemale, male-to-female, or another diverse transfeminine gender identity, represent a vulnerable population at risk for negative mental health and substance use outcomes. Diagnostic clinical ...

Editorial: Mental Health Disparities Among Transgender Youth; Johanna Olson-Kennedy, MD
Ronald D. Barr, MB, ChB, MD; Andrea Ferrari, MD; Lynn Ries, MS; Jeremy Whelan, MB, BS, MD; W. Archie Bleyer, MD

Importance  Although cancer remains the most common cause of disease-related death in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) in high-income countries, their overall survival rates continue to increase and now exceed 80% at 5 years in several high-income countries. This has been accomplished through progressive improvements in active ...

Comment & Response 
Igor B. Mekjavic, PhD; Ian A. Macdonald, PhD

To the Editor The results of the report by Chang et al,1 demonstrating that melatonin supplementation is associated with improved sleep-onset latency and disease severity in children with atopic dermatitis, may provide further insight into the phenomenon of nocturnal peripheral vasodilatation. It is suggested that nocturnal peripheral ...

Comment & Response 
Yung-Sen Chang, MD, MPH; Bor-Luen Chiang, MD, PhD

In Reply We thank Mekjavic and Macdonald for providing their insightful comments and theory that peripheral vasodilation might be involved in the mechanism of how melatonin helps improve disease severity in children with atopic dermatitis. Temperature and the circadian rhythm have been found to have much influence on ...

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