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Basic View | Expanded View
 Showing 1-20 of 49 Articles
William A. Carey, MD; Marc A. Ellsworth, MD; Malinda N. Harris, MD

This Viewpoint recommends that the research model for the Children’s Oncology Group be emulated to study the effects of inhaled nitric oxide in neonates to establish acceptable practice patterns and lower the economic burden on the US health care system.

Original Investigation 
Katrin Mehler, MD; André Oberthuer, MD; Titus Keller, MD; Ingrid Becker; Markus Valter, MD; Bernhard Roth, MD; Angela Kribs, MD

Importance  Rates of survival for infants born at the border of viability are still low and vary considerably among neonatal intensive care units.

Objective  To determine whether higher survival rates and better short-term outcomes for infants born at 22 or 23 weeks’ gestation may be achieved ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Saroj Saigal, MD, FRCP(C); Kimberly L. Day, PhD; Ryan J. Van Lieshout, MD, PhD, FRCP(C); Louis A. Schmidt, PhD; Katherine M. Morrison, MD, FRCP(C); Michael H. Boyle, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Although it has been previously reported that the transition of extremely low-birth-weight survivors (≤1000 g) in their mid-20s was similar to that of normal-birth-weight controls (>2500g), there was uncertainty as to whether this positive pattern would persist.

Objective  To compare the social functioning of low-birth-weight ...

Original Investigation 
Katherine A. Sparger, MD; Susan F. Assmann, PhD; Suzanne Granger, MS; Abigail Winston, MS; Robert D. Christensen, MD; John A. Widness, MD; Cassandra Josephson, MD; Sean R. Stowell, MD, PhD; Matthew Saxonhouse, MD; Martha Sola-Visner, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Thrombocytopenia and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are common among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Survey results suggest that US neonatologists frequently administer platelet transfusions to VLBW infants with mild to moderate thrombocytopenia.

Objectives  To characterize platelet transfusion practices in US neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), to determine whether ...

Ellen C. Perrin, MD; Laurel K. Leslie, MD, MPH; Thomas Boat, MD

This Viewpoint discusses the importance of pediatric and family medical homes in assisting parents in the tasks of protecting, nurturing, guiding, and educating their children.

Megan M. Tschudy, MD, MPH; Tina L. Cheng, MD, MPH

In the United States, racial disparities in asthma have been well documented. African American children have higher rates of asthma and disproportionately worse asthma outcomes than white children including higher rates of hospitalizations and deaths.1 The causes of these disparities are multifactorial. It has been documented that ...

Original Investigation 
Daniel B. Horton, MD, MSCE; Brian L. Strom, MD, MPH; Mary E. Putt, PhD, ScD; Carlos D. Rose, MD; David D. Sherry, MD; Julia S. Sammons, MD, MSCE
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has increased among children. The epidemiology of pediatric C difficile infection–associated reactive arthritis is poorly understood.

Objective  To characterize the incidence, recognition, and distinguishing clinical features of pediatric C difficile infection–associated reactive arthritis among children with C difficile infection....

Original Investigation 
Andrew F. Beck, MD, MPH; Bin Huang, PhD; Katherine A. Auger, MD, MS; Patrick H. Ryan, PhD; Chen Chen, PhD; Robert S. Kahn, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Childhood asthma is characterized by disparities in the experience of morbidity, including the risk for readmission to the hospital after an initial hospitalization. African American children have been shown to have more than 2 times the hazard of readmission when compared with their white counterparts.


Editorial: Black Box of Asthma Racial Disparities; Megan M. Tschudy, MD, MPH; Tina L. Cheng, MD, MPH
Alison M. Buttenheim, PhD, MBA; David A. Asch, MD, MBA

This Viewpoint discusses several approaches to increase vaccination acceptance in the United States 1 year after the measles outbreak that originated in Disneyland and has been attributed to parents who chose not to vaccinate their children.

Mark A. Pereira, PhD; Matthew W. Gillman, MD, SM

In adults and children, artificial sweeteners, also known as nonnutritive sweeteners, may increase the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders. Much research on nonnutritive sweeteners has focused on artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) for several reasons: their consumption has increased over the last 30 years, they are the ...

Original Investigation 
Meghan B. Azad, PhD; Atul K. Sharma, MSc, MD; Russell J. de Souza, RD, ScD; Vernon W. Dolinsky, PhD; Allan B. Becker, MD; Piushkumar J. Mandhane, MD; Stuart E. Turvey, MBBS, DPhil; Padmaja Subbarao, MD; Diana L. Lefebvre, PhD; Malcolm R. Sears, MB; for the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study Investigators
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The consumption of artificial sweeteners has increased substantially in recent decades, including among pregnant women. Animal studies suggest that exposure to artificial sweeteners in utero may predispose offspring to develop obesity; however, to our knowledge, this has never been studied in humans.

Objective  To determine ...

Editorial: Prenatal Artificially Sweetened Beverage Intake and Infant Weight Gain; Mark A. Pereira, PhD; Matthew W. Gillman, MD, SM
Research Letter 
Chris Adamopoulos, MD; Hugues Greney, PhD; Maxime Beutelstetter, PharmD; Pascal Bousquet, MD; Angelo Livolsi, MD

This study investigates the expression of M2 muscarinic receptors’ in the blood samples of infants who experienced apparent life-threatening events.

On My Mind 
Jessica W. Tsai, MD, PhD

December 27, 2014. My father lost consciousness in the bathroom. The paramedics took him to the emergency department, where I held a pink bucket in front of his face and watched as he vomited blood into it. At the time, I was a fourth-year medical student in the ...

Original Investigation 
Zachary Y. Kerr, PhD, MPH; Scott L. Zuckerman, MD; Erin B. Wasserman, PhD; Tracey Covassin, PhD, AT, ATC; Aristarque Djoko, MS; Thomas P. Dompier, PhD, ATC
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  To our knowledge, little research has examined concussion across the youth/adolescent spectrum and even less has examined concussion-related outcomes (ie, symptoms and return to play).

Objective  To examine and compare sport-related concussion outcomes (symptoms and return to play) in youth, high school, and collegiate football ...

Original Investigation 
Willemijn E. Corpeleijn, MD; Marita de Waard, MD; Viola Christmann, MD; Johannes B. van Goudoever, PhD; Marijke C. Jansen-van der Weide, PhD; Elisabeth M. W. Kooi, PhD; Jan F. Koper, MD; Stefanie M. P. Kouwenhoven, BSc; Hendrik N. Lafeber, PhD; Elise Mank, BSc; Letty van Toledo, PhD; Marijn J. Vermeulen, PhD; Ineke van Vliet, BSc; Diny van Zoeren-Grobben, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Infections and necrotizing enterocolitis, major causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants, are reduced in infants fed their own mother’s milk when compared with formula. When own mother’s milk is not available, human donor milk is considered a good alternative, albeit an expensive one. However, ...

Pascal Borry, PhD; Karine Sénécal, LLM; Bartha Maria Knoppers, PhD

This Viewpoint discourages the use of commercial newborn screening kits that are marketed to parents and calls for regulation.

Original Investigation 
Julia E. Heck, PhD; Andrew S. Park, MPH; Zuelma A. Contreras, MPH; Tom B. Davidson, MD; Katherine J. Hoggatt, PhD; Myles Cockburn, PhD; Beate Ritz, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The Hispanic epidemiologic paradox is the phenomenon that non-US–born Hispanic mothers who immigrate to the United States have better pregnancy outcomes than their US-born counterparts. It is unknown whether this advantage extends to childhood cancer risk.

Objective  To determine whether the risk for childhood cancers ...

Original Investigation 
Margaret R. Karagas, PhD; Tracy Punshon, PhD; Vicki Sayarath, MPH; Brian P. Jackson, PhD; Carol L. Folt, PhD; Kathryn L. Cottingham, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Rice—a typical first food and major ingredient in various infant foods—contains inorganic arsenic (As), but the extent of As exposure from these foods has not been well characterized in early childhood.

Objective  To determine the types and frequency of rice and rice-containing products consumed by ...

Comment & Response 
Alison Poulton, MA, MBBChir, MD

To the Editor I read with interest the meta-analysis by Kuzik et al.1 This study included 10 randomized clinical studies investigating the effects of metformin on height, weight, and body mass index. Meta-analysis of the 5 studies with the highest cumulative dose revealed a rather surprising outcome ...

Comment & Response 
Nicholas Kuzik, MSc; Étienne Myette-Côté, MSc; Normand Boulé, PhD

In Reply We thank Poulton for the thoughtful letter that stated that the greater increase in height observed in studies from our meta-analysis1 with the highest cumulative metformin dose was owing to “a combination of inaccurate and abnormally slow growth rates in the control individuals.”

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