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 Showing 1-20 of 30 Articles
Original Investigation 
Eric A. Biondi, MD; Matthew Mischler, MD; Karen E. Jerardi, MD, MEd; Angela M. Statile, MD, MEd; Jason French, MD; Rianna Evans, MD; Vivian Lee, MD; Clifford Chen, MD; Carl Asche, PhD; Jinma Ren, PhD; Samir S. Shah, MD, MSCE; for the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) Network

Importance  Blood cultures are often obtained as part of the evaluation of infants with fever and these infants are typically observed until their cultures are determined to have no growth. However, the time to positivity of blood culture results in this population is not known.

Objective  ...

Original Investigation 
Shilpa Gulati, MS; Chris A. Andrews, PhD; Alexandra O. Apkarian, MD; David C. Musch, PhD, MPH; Paul P. Lee, MD, JD; Joshua D. Stein, MD, MS
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Strabismus causes irreversible vision loss if not detected and treated early. It is unclear whether birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) are risk factors for strabismus.

Objective  To estimate the effect of BW and GA on the likelihood of premature infants developing strabismus.

Design, ...

Viewpoint 
Aimee M. Grace, MD, MPH; Roy Ahn, MPH, ScD; Wendy Macias Konstantopoulos, MD, MPH
Today in the United States, human trafficking occurs in cities, suburbs, and rural areas across all 50 US states.1 “Severe forms” of human trafficking are defined under the US Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 as the following: (1) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by ...
Viewpoint 
Angela Diaz, MD, MPH; Ellen Wright Clayton, MD, JD; Patti Simon, MPH
Health care professionals who routinely interact with young people have an important role to play in preventing, identifying, and responding to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors. These crimes—which include any sexual activity with someone younger than 18 years in exchange for something of value—occur every day in ...
Editorial 
Thomas H. Inge, MD, PhD; Robert M. Siegel, MD; Stavra A. Xanthakos, MD
In 1991, a total of 8 people were sealed for 2 years inside a man-made “Biosphere” consisting of a 3-acre ecologically closed habitat. This crew of 4 men and 4 women voluntarily entered the habitat to learn about the interactions between humans and key ecological systems. However, these scientists serendipitously ...
Original Investigation 
Aaron E. Carroll, MD, MS; Nerissa S. Bauer, MD, MPH; Tamara M. Dugan, BS; Vibha Anand, PhD, MS; Chandan Saha, PhD; Stephen M. Downs, MD, MS

Importance  Developmental delays and disabilities are common in children. Research has indicated that intervention during the early years of a child's life has a positive effect on cognitive development, social skills and behavior, and subsequent school performance.

Objective  To determine whether a computerized clinical decision support ...

Original Investigation 
Olga van der Baan-Slootweg, MD, PhD; Marc A. Benninga, MD, PhD; Anita Beelen, PhD; Job van der Palen, PhD; Christine Tamminga-Smeulders, MSc; Jan G. P. Tijssen, PhD; Wim M. C. van Aalderen, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Severe childhood obesity has become a major health problem, and effective, evidence-based interventions are needed. The relative effectiveness of inpatient compared with ambulatory treatment remains unknown.

Objective  To determine whether an inpatient treatment program is more effective than an ambulatory treatment program at achieving a ...

On My Mind 
Mark B. Warren, MD
His face will forever be etched in my memory. The resemblance to my oldest son was striking. He was a slender preteen lying in unfamiliar surroundings and looking distinctly out of place in his hospital gown. Gauze packing disfigured his delicately thin nose. But apart from the gown and the ...
Original Investigation 
JoAnna K. Leyenaar, MD, MPH, MSc; Meng-Shiou Shieh, PhD; Tara Lagu, MD, MPH; Penelope S. Pekow, PhD; Peter K. Lindenauer, MD, MSc
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Although the majority of children with an unplanned admission to the hospital are admitted through the emergency department (ED), direct admissions constitute a significant proportion of hospital admissions nationally. Despite this, past studies of children have not characterized direct admission practices or outcomes. Pneumonia is the ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Lois K. Lee, MD, MPH; David Monroe, MD; Michael C. Bachman, MD; Todd F. Glass, MD; Prashant V. Mahajan, MD, MPH, MBA; Arthur Cooper, MD; Rachel M. Stanley, MD, MHSA; Michelle Miskin, MS; Peter S. Dayan, MD, MSc; James F. Holmes, MD, MPH; Nathan Kuppermann, MD, MPH; for the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Working Group of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN)
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  A history of loss of consciousness (LOC) is frequently a driving factor for computed tomography use in the emergency department evaluation of children with blunt head trauma. Computed tomography carries a nonnegligible risk for lethal radiation-induced malignancy. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) derived ...

Original Investigation 
David L. Olds, PhD; Harriet Kitzman, RN, PhD; Michael D. Knudtson, MS; Elizabeth Anson, MS; Joyce A. Smith, PhD; Robert Cole, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Mothers and children living in adverse contexts are at risk of premature death.

Objective  To determine the effect of prenatal and infant/toddler nurse home visiting on maternal and child mortality during a 2-decade period (1990-2011).

Design, Setting, and Participants  A randomized clinical trial was ...

Viewpoint 
David G. Nichols, MD, MBA
Although its wording has evolved, the essence of the mission of the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) has not changed: to certify “pediatricians based on standards of excellence that lead to high-quality health care during infancy, childhood, adolescence, and the transition to adulthood.” The ABP needs assessments embedded in clinical ...
Original Investigation 
Jianghong Liu, PhD; Xianchen Liu, MD, PhD; Wei Wang, PhD; Linda McCauley, PhD; Jennifer Pinto-Martin, PhD; Yingjie Wang, MS; Linda Li, BA; Chonghuai Yan, PhD; Walter J. Rogan, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The association between lead exposure and children’s IQ has been well studied, but few studies have examined the effects of blood lead concentrations on children’s behavior.

Objective  To evaluate the association between blood lead concentrations and behavioral problems in a community sample of Chinese preschool ...

Viewpoint 
Craig Evan Pollack, MD, MHS; Rachel L. Johnson Thornton, MD, PhD; Stefanie DeLuca, PhD
In its recent call to action, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Commission to Build a Healthier America1 noted that nearly one-fifth of all Americans live in unhealthy neighborhoods that are marked by limited job opportunities, low-quality housing, pollution, limited access to healthy food, and few opportunities for physical activity, and ...
Topics: housing; mobility
Editorial 
Corinne Peek-Asa, PhD; Daniel V. McGehee, PhD; Beth E. Ebel, MD
Road traffic crashes, among the top 10 leading causes of death worldwide, are increasingly recognized as a public health priority.1 Regardless of a country’s licensing policies, novice drivers are at increased risk for crashes.2- 4 In the United States, which allows driving at a relatively young age (14-16 years), motor ...
Original Investigation 
Jessica H. Mirman, PhD; Allison E. Curry, PhD, MPH; Flaura K. Winston, MD, PhD; Wenli Wang, MS; Michael R. Elliott, PhD; Maria T. Schultheis, PhD; Megan C. Fisher Thiel, MPH; Dennis R. Durbin, MD, MSCE

Importance  Many studies have failed to show an effect of parent-supervised practice driving on the driving performance of teenagers; nevertheless, most Graduated Driver Licensing programs have provisions that require supervised practice.

Objective  To determine whether a web-based intervention, the Teen Driving Plan (TDP), can improve the ...

Topics: licensure
Original Investigation 
Suvi M. Virtanen, MD, PhD; Hanna-Mari Takkinen, MSc; Bright I. Nwaru, MPhil, PhD; Minna Kaila, MD, PhD; Suvi Ahonen, MSc; Jaakko Nevalainen, PhD; Sari Niinistö, MSc; Heli Siljander, MD, PhD; Olli Simell, MD, PhD; Jorma Ilonen, MD, PhD; Heikki Hyöty, MD, PhD; Riitta Veijola, MD, PhD; Mikael Knip, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The role of microbial exposure during early life in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus is unclear.

Objective  To investigate whether animal contact and other microbial exposures during infancy are associated with the development of preclinical and clinical type 1 diabetes.

Design, Setting, and ...

The latest report from the Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study group1 on the association of breastfeeding with cognitive outcomes in children born to mothers with epilepsy taking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is fascinating. The investigators assessed the IQ in children aged 6 years who had been exposed to AEDs ...
Editorial 
Robert Williams, MD; Robert Pfister, MD; Ian Black, MD
Original Investigation 
Kimford J. Meador, MD; Gus A. Baker, PhD; Nancy Browning, PhD; Morris J. Cohen, EdD; Rebecca L. Bromley, PhD; Jill Clayton-Smith, MD; Laura A. Kalayjian, MD; Andres Kanner, MD; Joyce D. Liporace, MD; Page B. Pennell, MD; Michael Privitera, MD; David W. Loring, PhD; for the Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study Group
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Breastfeeding is known to have beneficial effects, but concern exists that breastfeeding during maternal antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy may be harmful. We previously noted no adverse effects of breastfeeding associated with AED use on IQ at age 3 years, but IQ at age 6 years is ...

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