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Basic View | Expanded View
 Showing 1-20 of 38 Articles
Matthew W. Gillman, MD, SM; Ross A. Hammond, PhD

This Viewpoint discusses integrating treatment and prevention in precision medicine.

Editorial  FREE
Nathan Kuppermann, MD, MPH; Prashant Mahajan, MD, MPH, MBA

Fever is one of the most common reasons for infants to present to the emergency department (ED).1 Among febrile infants younger than 3 months presenting to EDs, approximately 5% to 9% will have urinary tract infections, 2% will have bacteremia, and less than 0.5% will have bacterial ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Karen Milcent, MD, MSc; Sabine Faesch, MD; Christèle Gras-Le Guen, MD, PhD; François Dubos, MD, PhD; Claire Poulalhon, MD; Isabelle Badier, MD; Elisabeth Marc, MD; Christine Laguille, MD; Loïc de Pontual, MD, PhD; Alexis Mosca, MD; Gisèle Nissack, MD; Sandra Biscardi, MD; Hélène Le Hors, MD, PhD; Ferielle Louillet, MD; Andreea Madalina Dumitrescu, MD; Philippe Babe, MD; Christelle Vauloup-Fellous, PharmD, PhD; Jean Bouyer, PhD; Vincent Gajdos, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  The procalcitonin (PCT) assay is an accurate screening test for identifying invasive bacterial infection (IBI); however, data on the PCT assay in very young infants are insufficient.

Objective  To assess the diagnostic characteristics of the PCT assay for detecting serious bacterial infection (SBI) and IBI ...

Editorial: Identifying Young Febrile Infants With Invasive Bacterial Infections; Nathan Kuppermann, MD, MPH; Prashant Mahajan, MD, MPH, MBA

Health care systems designed to meet the needs of adults often fail to meet the needs of children. To compensate, the federal government has created systems specifically designed to meet the needs of children, such as the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Medicaid, and the Children’s Health Insurance ...

Original Investigation 
Amanda R. Kreider, BS, BA; Benjamin French, PhD; Jaya Aysola, MD, MPH; Brendan Saloner, PhD; Kathleen G. Noonan, JD; David M. Rubin, MD, MSCE
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  An increasing diversity of children’s health coverage options under the US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, together with uncertainty regarding reauthorization of the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) beyond 2017, merits renewed attention on the quality of these options for children.

Objective  To compare ...

Original Investigation 
Yung-Sen Chang, MD, MPH; Ming-Hung Lin, MD, MS; Jyh-Hong Lee, MD, PhD; Pei-Lin Lee, MD, PhD; Yang-Shia Dai, MD, MS; Kuan-Hua Chu, PhD; Chi Sun, MD; Yu-Tsan Lin, MD, PhD; Li-Chieh Wang, MD, PhD; Hsin-Hui Yu, MD; Yao-Hsu Yang, MD, PhD; Chun-An Chen, MD, PhD; Kong-Sang Wan, MD, PhD; Bor-Luen Chiang, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Sleep disturbance is common in children with atopic dermatitis (AD), but effective clinical management for this problem is lacking. Reduced levels of nocturnal melatonin were found to be associated with sleep disturbance and increased disease severity in children with AD. Melatonin also has sleep-inducing and anti-inflammatory ...

Meghan L. Marsac, PhD; Nancy Kassam-Adams, PhD; Aimee K. Hildenbrand, MS; Elizabeth Nicholls, MS; Flaura K. Winston, MD, PhD; Stephen S. Leff, PhD; Joel Fein, MD, MPH

Pediatric health care networks serve millions of children each year. Pediatric illness and injury are among the most common potentially emotionally traumatic experiences for children and their families. In addition, millions of children who present for medical care (including well visits) have been exposed to prior traumatic events, ...

Valerie Maholmes, PhD, CAS; Robert F. Tamburro, MD, MSc; Tammara L. Jenkins, MSN, RN, PCNS-BC

This Viewpoint summarizes 3 research priorities of the Pediatric Trauma and Critical Illness Branch and emphasizes the importance of collaboration among experts from different fields in understanding the medical needs of children.

George M. Weinstock, PhD

Few areas have received more visibility and attention over the past few years than the human microbiome. The collection of microbes that inhabit the human body have been associated with an astounding number of diseases and characteristics of human health. The promise of deciphering these microbe-host relationships are ...

Original Investigation 
Ulla Uusitalo, PhD; Xiang Liu, PhD; Jimin Yang, PhD, RD; Carin Andrén Aronsson, MS; Sandra Hummel, PhD; Martha Butterworth, MS; Åke Lernmark, PhD; Marian Rewers, PhD; William Hagopian, MD, PhD; Jin-Xiong She, PhD; Olli Simell, MD, PhD; Jorma Toppari, MD, PhD; Anette G. Ziegler, PhD; Beena Akolkar, PhD; Jeffrey Krischer, PhD; Jill M. Norris, PhD; Suvi M. Virtanen, MD, PhD; for the TEDDY Study Group

Importance  Probiotics have been hypothesized to affect immunologic responses to environmental exposures by supporting healthy gut microbiota and could therefore theoretically be used to prevent the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)–associated islet autoimmunity.

Objective  To examine the association between supplemental probiotic use during the ...

Editorial: A Glimpse of Microbial Power in Preventive Medicine; George M. Weinstock, PhD
Research Letter 
Man Ping Wang, PhD; Sai Yin Ho, PhD; Lok Tung Leung, BSc; Tai Hing Lam, MD

This study investigates the association between e-cigarette use and respiratory systems in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

Kurt R. Schumacher, MD, MS; Joyce M. Lee, MD, MPH

This Viewpoint reviews both the opportunities and the challenges of using social media to obtain condition-specific, patient-reported data.

Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, PhD, MPH, LCSW, RN; Jane J. Lee, LMSW; James Jaccard, PhD

A significant number of sexually active youth experience poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes, including unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and human immunodeficiency virus infection.1 Nearly half (47%) of all high school students in the United States have ever had sex and more than one-third (34%) are ...

Original Investigation 
Laura Widman, PhD; Sophia Choukas-Bradley, MA; Seth M. Noar, PhD; Jacqueline Nesi, MA; Kyla Garrett, MA
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Parent-adolescent sexual communication has received considerable attention as a factor that can positively affect safer sex behavior among youth; however, the evidence linking such communication to youth contraceptive and condom use has not been empirically synthesized.

Objectives  To examine the effect of parent-adolescent sexual communication ...

Editorial: Parent-Adolescent Communication About Contraception and Condom Use; Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, PhD, MPH, LCSW, RN; Jane J. Lee, LMSW; James Jaccard, PhD
Research Letter 
Joel G. Ray, MD, MSc, FRCPC; Karyn E. Medcalf, HBSc; Alison L. Park, MSc

This study examines the risk for maternal admission to the intensive care unit based on the infant’s 5-minute Apgar score.

Elizabeth A. Jacobs, MD, MPP; Monica Vela, MD

In this issue of JAMA Pediatrics, Lion and colleagues1 describe findings from their well-designed randomized clinical trial of video vs telephonic modes of delivering Spanish-language interpretation in the pediatric emergency department (ED). They found that parents who were randomized to receive video interpretation during their child’s ...

Joanne N. Wood, MD, MSHP

In the early 1970s, Caffey1,2 described infants exposed to physical child abuse with subdural hemorrhages, retinal hemorrhages, and fractures, a pattern of injuries he attributed to whiplash shaken infant syndrome. Noting the significant risk for morbidity and mortality associated with the intracranial injuries, Caffey called ...

Original Investigation 
K. Casey Lion, MD, MPH; Julie C. Brown, MDCM, MPH; Beth E. Ebel, MD, MSc, MPH; Eileen J. Klein, MD, MPH; Bonnie Strelitz, MPH; Colleen Kays Gutman, MD; Patty Hencz, RN; Juan Fernandez, BA; Rita Mangione-Smith, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Consistent professional interpretation improves communication with patients who have limited English proficiency. Remote modalities (telephone and video) have the potential for wide dissemination.

Objective  To test the effect of telephone vs video interpretation on communication during pediatric emergency care.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Randomized ...

Editorial: Reducing Language Barriers in Health Care; Elizabeth A. Jacobs, MD, MPP; Monica Vela, MD
Original Investigation 
Adam J. Zolotor, MD, DrPH; Desmond K. Runyan, MD, DrPH; Meghan Shanahan, PhD; Christine Piette Durrance, PhD; Maryalice Nocera, MSN; Kelly Sullivan, PhD; Joanne Klevens, MD, PhD; Robert Murphy, PhD; Marilyn Barr, BIS; Ronald G. Barr, MDCM, FRCPC

Importance  Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a serious condition, with an incidence of approximately 30 cases per 100 000 person-years in the first year of life.

Objective  To assess the effectiveness of a statewide universal AHT prevention program.

Design, Setting, and Participants  In total, 88.29% of ...

Editorial: Challenges in Prevention of Abusive Head Trauma; Joanne N. Wood, MD, MSHP
Research Letter 
Amy J. Starmer, MD, MPH; Lauren Destino, MD; Catherine S. Yoon, MS; Christopher P. Landrigan, MD, MPH

This study describes the proportion of time spent by residents in direct care, indirect care activities, and education across 9 pediatric institutions.

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