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Basic View | Expanded View
 Showing 1-20 of 35 Articles
James A. Taylor, MD; Douglas J. Opel, MD, MPH
Although it has been recognized for centuries,1 the concept of the placebo effect was brought to professional consciousness with the 1955 publication of “The Powerful Placebo.”2 In this seminal work, Beecher used a quasi–meta-analysis approach to estimate that 35.2% of patients had a satisfactory response to placebo for relief of ...
Original Investigation 
Arti D. Desai, MD, MSPH; Chuan Zhou, PhD; Susan Stanford, MPH, MSW; Wren Haaland, MPH; James W. Varni, PhD; Rita M. Mangione-Smith, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Validated patient-reported outcomes responsive to clinical change are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of quality improvement interventions.

Objectives  To evaluate responsiveness, construct validity, and predictive validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Generic Core Scales in the pediatric inpatient setting.

Design, Setting, ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Ian M. Paul, MD, MSc; Jessica S. Beiler, MPH; Julie R. Vallati, LPN; Laura M. Duda, MD; Tonya S. King, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  Cough is one of the most common reasons why children visit a health care professional.

Objectives  To compare the effect of a novel formulation of pasteurized agave nectar vs placebo and no treatment on nocturnal cough and the sleep difficulty associated with nonspecific acute cough ...

Original Investigation 
Josephine S. Lau, MD, MPH; Sally H. Adams, PhD, RN; M. Jane Park, MPH; W. John Boscardin, PhD; Charles E. Irwin Jr, MD

Importance  The 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) included expansion of insurance coverage for young adults and improved access to preventive care.

Objective  To examine the ACA’s initial effects on young adults’ receipt of preventive care.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Secondary data analysis using a pre-post ...

Original Investigation 
Cathy E. Elks, PhD; Barbara Heude, PhD; Francis de Zegher, MD; Sheila J. Barton, PhD; Karine Clément, PhD; Hazel M. Inskip, PhD; Yves Koudou, MSc; Cyrus Cooper, FRCP; David B. Dunger, FRCP; Lourdes Ibáñez, MD; Marie-Aline Charles, MD, PhD; Ken K. Ong, FRCPCH
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Patterns of body size and body composition associated with genetic obesity susceptibility inform the mechanisms that increase obesity risk.

Objective  To test associations between genetic obesity susceptibility, represented by a combined obesity risk-allele score, and body size or body composition at birth to age 5 ...

Special Communication 
Glenn Flores, MD; Bruce Lesley, BA

Children account for 73.5 million Americans (24%), but 8% of federal expenditures. Data on health and health care indicate that child well-being in the United States has been in decline since the most recent recession. Childhood poverty has reached its highest level in 20 years, 1 in 4 ...

Viewpoint  FREE
Georgina Peacock, MD, MPH; Timothy M. Uyeki, MD, MPH, MPP; Sonja A. Rasmussen, MD, MS
This Viewpoint discusses what pediatric health care professionals should consider when treating children presenting with signs and symptoms similar to Ebola virus disease.
Original Investigation 
Irma M. Hein, MSc, MD; Pieter W. Troost, MD, PhD; Robert Lindeboom, MSc, PhD; Marc A. Benninga, MD, PhD; C. Michel Zwaan, MD, PhD; Johannes B. van Goudoever, MD, PhD; Ramón J. L. Lindauer, MD, PhD

Importance  An objective assessment of children’s competence to consent to research participation is currently not possible. Age limits for asking children’s consent vary considerably between countries, and, to our knowledge, the correlation between competence and children’s age has never been systematically investigated.

Objectives  To test a ...

Original Investigation 
Umar Toseeb, PhD; Soren Brage, PhD; Kirsten Corder, PhD; Valerie J. Dunn, BEd; Peter B. Jones, MD, PhD, MRCPsych; Matthew Owens, PhD; Michelle C. St Clair, PhD; Esther M. F. van Sluijs, PhD; Ian M. Goodyer, MD, FRCPsych

Importance  Physical activity (PA) may have a positive effect on depressed mood. However, whether it can act as a protective factor against developing depressive symptoms in adolescence is largely unknown.

Objective  To investigate the association between objectively measured PA and depressive symptoms during 3 years of ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Adam J. Spanier, MD, PhD, MPH; Robert S. Kahn, MD, MPH; Allen R. Kunselman, MA; Eric W. Schaefer, MS; Richard Hornung, DrPH; Yingying Xu, MS; Antonia M. Calafat, PhD; Bruce P. Lanphear, MD, MPH

Importance  Bisphenol A (BPA), a prevalent endocrine-disrupting chemical, has been associated with wheezing in children, but few studies have examined its effect on lung function or wheeze in older children.

Objectives  To test whether BPA exposure is associated with lung function, with wheeze, and with pattern ...

Original Investigation 
Deborah Persaud, MD; Kunjal Patel, DSc, MPH; Brad Karalius, MPH; Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, PhD, MPH; Carrie Ziemniak, MS; Angela Ellis, BS; Ya Hui Chen, BA; Douglas Richman, MD; George K. Siberry, MD, MPH; Russell B. Van Dyke, MD; Sandra Burchett, MD; George R. Seage III, DSc, MPH; Katherine Luzuriaga, MD; for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study

Importance  Combination antiretroviral therapy initiated within several weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults limits proviral reservoirs that preclude HIV cure. Biomarkers of restricted proviral reservoirs may aid in the monitoring of HIV remission or cure.

Objectives  To quantify peripheral blood proviral reservoir size ...

Alan R. Fleischman, MD; Mildred Z. Solomon, EdD
This Viewpoint addresses questions raised in the debate over whether the current US regulatory framework for governing protection of human research participants is an impediment to comparative effectiveness research.
Andrea Granados, MD; Joyce M. Lee, MD, MPH
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and cerebral edema are major causes of morbidity and mortality in children with diabetes mellitus.1,2 Despite greater awareness and reports of earlier detection, approximately one-third of US children with new-onset diabetes at the time of diagnosis present with DKA,3 which is defined by the presence of hyperglycemia ...
Research Letter 
Kathleen L. Dooling, MD, MPH; Daniel J. Shapiro, BA; Chris Van Beneden, MD, MPH; Adam L. Hersh, MD, PhD; Lauri A. Hicks, DO
Pharyngitis is a common reason for pediatric health care visits.1 While viral infections account for the majority of pharyngitis episodes, group A Streptococcus (GAS) is implicated in approximately 37% of episodes among children.1 Antimicrobial treatment of GAS pharyngitis can shorten illness duration, prevent complications, and minimize transmission to others.2 Evidence-based ...
Original Investigation 
Karthi Nallasamy, MD, DM; Muralidharan Jayashree, MD; Sunit Singhi, MD; Arun Bansal, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  The standard recommended dose (0.1 U/kg per hour) of insulin in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) guidelines is not backed by strong clinical evidence. Physiologic dose-effect studies have found that even lower doses could adequately normalize ketonemia and acidosis. Lowering the insulin dose may be advantageous in the ...

Original Investigation 
L. Charles Bailey, MD, PhD; Christopher B. Forrest, MD, PhD; Peixin Zhang, PhD; Thomas M. Richards, MS; Alice Livshits, BS; Patricia A. DeRusso, MD, MS

Importance  Obesity in children and adults is associated with significant health burdens, making prevention a public health imperative. Infancy may be a critical period when environmental factors exert a lasting effect on the risk for obesity; identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk.

Objective  ...

Viewpoint  FREE
Jana Shaw, MD, MPH; Thomas R. Welch, MD; Aaron M. Milstone, MD, MHS
This Viewpoint discusses how early detection of enterovirus D68 can inform decisions to activate hospital preparedness and emergency response teams and promote proactive community and physician education.
Research Letter 
Walid F. Gellad, MD, MPH; Bradley D. Stein, MD, PhD; Teague Ruder, MA; Rochelle Henderson, PhD; Sharon G. Frazee, PhD, MPH; Ateev Mehrotra, MD, MPH; Julie M. Donohue, PhD
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders, affecting an estimated 11% of boys and 4% of girls in the United States.1 Stimulant medications manage ADHD symptoms in most children.2,3 However, many parents prefer that treatment include some nonpharmacologic therapy,4,5 and combination behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy may ...
Original Investigation 
Cassandra D. Josephson, MD; Angela M. Caliendo, MD, PhD; Kirk A. Easley, MS, MApStat; Andrea Knezevic, MS; Neeta Shenvi, MS; Michael T. Hinkes, MD; Ravi M. Patel, MD, MSc; Christopher D. Hillyer, MD; John D. Roback, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause serious morbidity and mortality in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. The primary sources of postnatal CMV infection in this population are breast milk and blood transfusion. The current risks attributable to these vectors, as well as the efficacy of approaches to ...

Original Investigation 
Ronald J. Sigal, MD, MPH; Angela S. Alberga, PhD; Gary S. Goldfield, PhD; Denis Prud’homme, MD, MSc; Stasia Hadjiyannakis, MD; Réjeanne Gougeon, PhD; Penny Phillips, MA; Heather Tulloch, PhD; Janine Malcolm, MD; Steve Doucette, MSc; George A. Wells, PhD; Jinhui Ma, PhD; Glen P. Kenny, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Little evidence exists on which exercise modality is optimal for obese adolescents.

Objective  To determine the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, and combined training on percentage body fat in overweight and obese adolescents.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial at community-based ...

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