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 Showing 1-20 of 31 Articles
A groundbreaking study,1 published in this journal nearly 25 years ago, documented improved academic outcomes among low-income schoolchildren who received school breakfast via the School Breakfast Program (SBP) vs those who did not, including significantly decreased tardiness and absences and improved performance on standardized tests of academic achievement. Since that ...
In this issue of JAMA Pediatrics, Caruso and Cullen1 describe the nutritional quality and cost of lunch brought from home by elementary and intermediate school–aged children in Houston, Texas. As they remind us, this component of the school food environment is basically avoided by public health policy and rarely addressed ...
Original Investigation 
Stephanie Anzman-Frasca, PhD; Holly Carmichael Djang, MA; Megan M. Halmo, MPH, MSW; Peter R. Dolan, MBA; Christina D. Economos, PhD

Importance  Short-term impacts of breakfast consumption on diet quality and cognitive functioning have been reported, but more evidence is needed to draw causal inferences about long-term impacts of school breakfast on indicators of school engagement and academic achievement.

Objective  To estimate the impact of a Breakfast ...

Original Investigation 
Michelle L. Caruso, MPH, RD; Karen W. Cullen, DrPH, RD

Importance  The nutritional quality and cost of lunches brought from home are overlooked and understudied aspects of the school food environment.

Objectives  To examine the quality and cost of lunches brought from home by elementary and intermediate school students.

Design, Setting, and Participants  An observational ...

Original Investigation 
Chris Feudtner, MD, PhD, MPH; Jennifer K. Walter, MD, PhD, MS; Jennifer A. Faerber, PhD; Douglas L. Hill, PhD; Karen W. Carroll, BS; Cynthia J. Mollen, MD, MSCE; Victoria A. Miller, PhD; Wynne E. Morrison, MD, MBE; David Munson, MD; Tammy I. Kang, MD, MSCE; Pamela S. Hinds, PhD, RN

Importance  Parents’ beliefs about what they need to do to be a good parent when their children are seriously ill influence their medical decisions, and better understanding of these beliefs may improve decision support.

Objective  To assess parents’ perceptions regarding the relative importance of 12 good-parent ...

Jeffrey P. Brosco, MD, PhD; Scott D. Grosse, PhD; Lainie Friedman Ross, MD, PhD
Fifty years after the advent of state newborn screening (NBS) programs for a metabolic condition, there is evidence that the decision to mandate universal screening can reduce health disparities. When in-hospital screening for phenylketonuria began in the early 1960s, most hospitals simply added the procedure to the list of routine ...
Jonathan Todres, JD
On November 20, 2014, the global community will celebrate the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, the most comprehensive international legal instrument on children’s rights. The Convention is the most widely ratified human rights treaty in history, ratified by 194 countries. Only the ...
Leslie A. Lytle, PhD
The study by Terry-McElrath et al1 in the current issue of JAMA Pediatrics seeks to answer important, timely questions related to how the new federal policy issued by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) may affect the nutritional environment of US schools and childhood obesity rates. Beginning in the 2014-2015 ...
Original Investigation 
Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath, MSA; Patrick M. O’Malley, PhD; Lloyd D. Johnston, PhD

Importance  The latest US Department of Agriculture school meal and competitive venue standards (USDA standards) aim to improve student nutrition and health. However, significant opposition has been raised to their implementation.

Objective  To examine (1) the percentages of US middle and high school students who currently ...

Original Investigation 
Abhay Lodha, MD, MSc; Mary Seshia, MBChB; Douglas D. McMillan, MD; Keith Barrington, MD; Junmin Yang, MSc; Shoo K. Lee, MD, PhD; Prakesh S. Shah, MD, MSc; for the Canadian Neonatal Network

Importance  Advantages of caffeine for apnea of prematurity have prompted clinicians to use it prophylactically even before apnea.

Objective  To determine the effect of early initiation of caffeine therapy on neonatal outcomes in very preterm infants born in Canada.

Design, Setting, and Participants  A retrospective ...

Infants born prematurely continue to make up almost 11.5% of the more than 4 million deliveries in the United States, with 1.4% of these deliveries occurring at a gestational age of 28 weeks or less.1 The work of Kastenberg et al,2 published in this issue of JAMA Pediatrics, adds to ...
Original Investigation 
Paige L. Williams, PhD; Marilyn J. Crain, MD; Cenk Yildirim, MS; Rohan Hazra, MD; Russell B. Van Dyke, MD; Kenneth Rich, MD; Jennifer S. Read, MD; Emma Stuard, MD; Mobeen Rathore, MD; Hermann A. Mendez, MD; D. Heather Watts, MD; for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Most studies examining the association of prenatal antiretroviral (ARV) exposures with congenital anomalies (CAs) in children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women have been reassuring, but some evidence suggests an increased risk with specific ARV agents.

Objective  To evaluate the association of in utero ...

Original Investigation 
Zachary J. Kastenberg, MD; Henry C. Lee, MD, MS; Jochen Profit, MD, MPH; Jeffrey B. Gould, MD, MPH; Karl G. Sylvester, MD

Importance  There has been a significant expansion in the number of low-level and midlevel neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in recent decades. Infants with necrotizing enterocolitis represent a high-risk subgroup of the very low-birth-weight (VLBW) (<1500 g) population that would benefit from focused regionalization.

Objectives  To ...

Michael Posencheg, MD; Haresh Kirpalani, BM, MSc
Many questions remain about both delayed cord clamping (DCC) and umbilical cord milking (UCM). Al-Wassia and Shah1 report the first meta-analysis of UCM in infants. We review current recommendations and concerns impeding their translation into widespread practice. We next review new meta-analyses in the literature that address some of the ...
Original Investigation 
Stefan N. Hansen, MSc; Diana E. Schendel, PhD; Erik T. Parner, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased markedly in recent decades, which researchers have suggested could be caused in part by nonetiologic factors such as changes in diagnosis reporting practices. To our knowledge, no study has quantified the degree to which changes in reporting ...

Original Investigation 
Rebecca M. Cunningham, MD; Patrick M. Carter, MD; Megan Ranney, MPH, MD; Marc A. Zimmerman, PhD; Fred C. Blow, PhD; Brenda M. Booth, PhD; Jason Goldstick, PhD; Maureen A. Walton, MPH, PhD

Importance  Violence is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among youth, with more than 700 000 emergency department (ED) visits annually for assault-related injuries. The risk for violent reinjury among high-risk, assault-injured youth is poorly understood.

Objective  To compare recidivism for violent injury and mortality outcomes ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Heidi Al-Wassia, MD; Prakesh S. Shah, MD, MSc
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  Umbilical cord milking (UCM) is suggested to improve neonatal outcomes.

Objectives  To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of UCM in full-term and preterm neonates.

Data Sources  A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Database of Clinical ...

James A. Taylor, MD; Douglas J. Opel, MD, MPH
Although it has been recognized for centuries,1 the concept of the placebo effect was brought to professional consciousness with the 1955 publication of “The Powerful Placebo.”2 In this seminal work, Beecher used a quasi–meta-analysis approach to estimate that 35.2% of patients had a satisfactory response to placebo for relief of ...
Original Investigation 
Arti D. Desai, MD, MSPH; Chuan Zhou, PhD; Susan Stanford, MPH, MSW; Wren Haaland, MPH; James W. Varni, PhD; Rita M. Mangione-Smith, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Validated patient-reported outcomes responsive to clinical change are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of quality improvement interventions.

Objectives  To evaluate responsiveness, construct validity, and predictive validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Generic Core Scales in the pediatric inpatient setting.

Design, Setting, ...

Original Investigation 
Ian M. Paul, MD, MSc; Jessica S. Beiler, MPH; Julie R. Vallati, LPN; Laura M. Duda, MD; Tonya S. King, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  Cough is one of the most common reasons why children visit a health care professional.

Objectives  To compare the effect of a novel formulation of pasteurized agave nectar vs placebo and no treatment on nocturnal cough and the sleep difficulty associated with nonspecific acute cough ...

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