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 Showing 1-20 of 37 Articles
Viewpoint 
Chén C. Kenyon, MD, MSHP; Deepak Palakshappa, MD; Chris Feudtner, MD, PhD, MPH

This Viewpoint suggests that logic models applied by investigators may provide a supportive trestle in bridging theoretical interventions and real-world applications.

When people acknowledge that life expectancy has increased dramatically in the past 5 decades, many mistakenly believe it is because of huge improvements in care for diseases that affect adults and the elderly at the end of their lives. What is missed is that many, if not most, ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Wade Harrison, MPH; David Goodman, MD, MS
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Neonatal intensive care has been highly effective at improving newborn outcomes but is expensive and carries inherent risks. Existing studies of neonatal intensive care have focused on specific subsets of newborns and lack a population-based perspective.

Objectives  To describe admission rates to neonatal intensive care ...

Viewpoint 
Shawn Ralston, MD; Kavita Parikh, MD; David Goodman, MD, MS

This Viewpoint discusses the relative paucity of attention paid to overuse of medical interventions with regard to bronchiolitis.

Editorial  FREE
Joan L. Luby, MD

Because the brain is the organ from which all cognition and emotion originates, healthy human brain development represents the foundation of our civilization. Accordingly, there is perhaps nothing more important that a society must do than foster and protect the brain development of our children. Building on a ...

Original Investigation 
Andrew F. Beck, MD, MPH; Todd A. Florin, MD, MSCE; Suzanne Campanella, BA; Samir S. Shah, MD, MSCE
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Bronchiolitis and pneumonia are leading causes of pediatric hospitalizations. Identifying geographic patterns in hospitalization rates across small geographic areas could be particularly relevant to targeted patient-level and population-level health care.

Objective  To determine whether lower respiratory tract infection hospitalization rates varied geographically across a single ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Nicole L. Hair, PhD; Jamie L. Hanson, PhD; Barbara L. Wolfe, PhD; Seth D. Pollak, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Children living in poverty generally perform poorly in school, with markedly lower standardized test scores and lower educational attainment. The longer children live in poverty, the greater their academic deficits. These patterns persist to adulthood, contributing to lifetime-reduced occupational attainment.

Objective  To determine whether atypical ...

Editorial: Poverty’s Most Insidious Damage; Joan L. Luby, MD
Viewpoint 
Eric M. Hecht, MD, MSPH; Julien Thomas, MS; David C. Landy, MD, MPH, PhD

This Viewpoint discusses the imbalance of US regulations requiring chemical flame retardants in many household and clothing items and the lack of accompanying chemical safety regulations.

Editorial  FREE
Jacquelyn Campbell, PhD, RN

I commend Swartout and colleagues on their study1 in this issue of JAMA Pediatrics for their secondary data analysis of the 2 largest longitudinal data sets of men in college that operationalize sexual assault with a well-validated measure. The results shed additional needed light on the nature ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Kevin M. Swartout, PhD; Mary P. Koss, PhD; Jacquelyn W. White, PhD; Martie P. Thompson, PhD; Antonia Abbey, PhD; Alexandra L. Bellis, BS
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  Rape on college campuses has been addressed recently by a presidential proclamation, federal legislation, advocacy groups, and popular media. Many initiatives assume that most college men who perpetrate rape are serial rapists. The scientific foundation for this perspective is surprisingly limited.

Objective  To determine whether ...

Editorial: Campus Sexual Assault Perpetration; Jacquelyn Campbell, PhD, RN
Original Investigation 
R. Dawn Comstock, PhD; Dustin W. Currie, MPH; Lauren A. Pierpoint, MS; Joseph A. Grubenhoff, MD; Sarah K. Fields, JD, PhD

Importance  Soccer, originally introduced as a safer sport for children and adolescents, has seen a rapid increase in popularity in the United States over the past 3 decades. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding the safety of soccer ball heading (when an athlete attempts to play the ...

Review 
Amish Jain, MBBS, MRCPCH; Prakesh S. Shah, MD, MSc, FRCPC

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) poses a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for clinicians. Diagnosis of persistent PDA and determination of its clinical and hemodynamic significance are challenging. Although the condition has been associated with substantial neonatal morbidities such as intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most therapeutic approaches ...

Viewpoint 
Elliott M. Weiss, MD; Steven Joffe, MD, MPH

This Viewpoint proposes that disclosures in comparative effectiveness randomized clinical trials should provide patients with appropriate information, including about risks, that are necessary to decide whether to join the trial, request a study treatment outside the trial, or select another available treatment.

Editorial  FREE
Jeffrey R. Starke, MD; Mary Anne Jackson, MD

For centuries, a guiding principle for health care workers (HCWs) has been primum non nocere, or first do no harm. Although this adage has been applied mostly to therapeutic interventions, it also infers that HCWs should not spread infections to their patients, especially the most vulnerable patients. ...

Editorial 
Alain Joffe, MD, MPH; Cherrie B. Boyer, PhD; Maria T. Britto, MD, MPH

This year, adolescent pregnancy rates in the United States reached historic lows.1 Similarly, the percentage of youths 12 to 17 years of age with severe mental health impairments decreased by 20% since the late 1990s.2 Death rates among 15- to 24-year-olds have also declined steadily since ...

Original Investigation 
Thiago Modesto, MSc; Henning Tiemeier, MD, PhD; Robin P. Peeters, MD, PhD; Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, MD, PhD; Albert Hofman, MD, PhD; Frank C. Verhulst, MD, PhD; Akhgar Ghassabian, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy can affect children’s cognitive development. Nevertheless, the behavioral outcomes of children exposed prenatally to mild thyroid hormone insufficiency are understudied.

Objective  To examine whether exposure to maternal mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in early pregnancy was related to symptoms of ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Julia E. Szymczak, PhD; Sarah Smathers, MPH, CIC; Cindy Hoegg, RN, CIC; Sarah Klieger, MPH; Susan E. Coffin, MD, MPH; Julia S. Sammons, MD, MSCE
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  When clinicians work with symptoms of infection, they can put patients and colleagues at risk. Little is known about the reasons why attending physicians and advanced practice clinicians (APCs) work while sick.

Objective  To identify a comprehensive understanding of the reasons why attending physicians and ...

Editorial: When The Health Care Worker Is Sick; Jeffrey R. Starke, MD; Mary Anne Jackson, MD
Original Investigation 
Laura K. Murray, PhD; Stephanie Skavenski, MSW, MPH; Jeremy C. Kane, PhD; John Mayeya, MSc; Shannon Dorsey, PhD; Judy A. Cohen, MD; Lynn T. M. Michalopoulos, PhD; Mwiya Imasiku, PhD; Paul A. Bolton, MBBS
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) are at high risk for experiencing trauma and related psychosocial problems. Despite this, no randomized clinical trials have studied evidence-based treatments for OVC in low-resource settings.

Objective  To evaluate the effectiveness of lay counselor–provided trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) to ...

Original Investigation 
David Finkelhor, PhD; Heather A. Turner, PhD; Anne Shattuck, MA; Sherry L. Hamby, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  It is important to estimate the burden of and trends for violence, crime, and abuse in the lives of children.

Objective  To provide health care professionals, policy makers, and parents with current estimates of exposure to violence, crime, and abuse across childhood and at different ...

Editorial 
Morgan K. Richards, MD, MPH; Meera Kotagal, MD, MPH; Adam B. Goldin, MD, MPH

Physicians strive to provide the best care for their patients, but defining the best care can be challenging. The diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis requires reconciling many factors often in conflict with one another. In this setting, imaging has taken on a prominent role. Computed tomography (CT) has higher ...

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