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 Showing 1-20 of 30 Articles
Alexandra N. Menchise, MD; Mitchell B. Cohen, MD
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is common in infants and children and has been estimated to affect as much as 3.3% of the pediatric population.1 Despite this, we still struggle with the management of GERD. With a growing body of literature that illustrates a lack of efficacy and alarming adverse effects, ...
Original Investigation 
Rachel Rosen, MD, MPH; Janine Amirault, BA; Hongye Liu, PhD; Paul Mitchell, MS; Lan Hu, PhD; Umakanth Khatwa, MD; Andrew Onderdonk, PhD

Importance  The use of acid suppression has been associated with an increased risk of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in the outpatient setting but the mechanism behind this increased risk is unknown. We hypothesize that this infection risk results from gastric bacterial overgrowth with subsequent seeding ...

On My Mind 
Tendo Kironde, BA
“My favorite class is math.”
Rachel van der Pol, MD; Miranda Langendam, PhD; Marc Benninga, MD, PhD; Michiel van Wijk, MD, PhD; Merit Tabbers, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are frequently used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children; however, their efficacy and safety is questionable.

Objective  To systematically review the literature to assess the efficacy and safety of H2RAs in pediatric GERD.

Evidence Review  PubMed, ...

Viewpoint  FREE
Deepak Palakshappa, MD; Genevieve Daftary, MD, MPH; Chris Feudtner, MD, PhD, MPH
On February 26, 2013, Doug Rauch, former president of Trader Joe’s grocery chain, announced his plans for the Urban Food Initiative (UFI). The goals are to address obesity, food insecurity, and food waste by opening nonprofit supermarkets in low-income neighborhoods and providing nutritious low-cost foods. To accomplish this, he proposed ...
Susan E. Coffin, MD, MPH
In this issue, Kaufman and colleagues describe their efforts to reduce the risk of infection among critically ill neonates.1 Late-onset infections are devastating for infants. Whether they are classified as health care–associated infections, such as central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), or identified as a somewhat less distinct clinical syndrome, such ...
Original Investigation 
Blegina Shashaj, MD, PhD; Giorgio Bedogni, MD; Maria P. Graziani, MD; Alberto E. Tozzi, MD; Maria L. DiCorpo, MD; Donatella Morano, MD; Ludovica Tacconi, MD; Patrizio Veronelli, MD; Benedetta Contoli, Ph.D; Melania Manco, MD, PhD

Importance  To date, the relationship among adiposity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk factors at the onset of overweight or obesity has been unexplored.

Objectives  To assess whether insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities are detectable at the onset of obesity and to unravel the interplay among adiposity, ...

Original Investigation  FREE
David A. Kaufman, MD; Amy Blackman, RN; Mark R. Conaway, PhD; Robert A. Sinkin, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  Late-onset infections commonly occur in extremely preterm infants and are associated with high rates of mortality and neurodevelopmental impairment. Hand hygiene alone does not always achieve the desired clean hands, as microorganisms are still present more than 50% of the time. We hypothesize that glove use ...

Thomas J. Hwang, AB; Florence T. Bourgeois, MD, MPH
The development of safe and effective pediatric drugs continues to fall short.1 The paucity of new therapies is particularly stark for rare diseases, which disproportionately affect children and collectively affect an estimated 25 million people in the United States and 30 million in Europe.2 Since the 1980s, US policymakers have ...
Kenneth B. Roberts, MD
In this issue of JAMA Pediatrics, Shaikh and colleagues1 report their analysis of risk factors for renal scarring in infants and young children following a urinary tract infection (UTI). The methods are notable. Shaikh and colleagues sought out individual patient data from multiple published articles, and the researchers of the ...
Original Investigation 
Nader Shaikh, MD, MPH; Jonathan C. Craig, MD, MBChB, PhD; Maroeska M. Rovers, PhD; Liviana Da Dalt, MD; Stefanos Gardikis, MD; Alejandro Hoberman, MD; Giovanni Montini, MD; Carlos Rodrigo, MD; Seppo Taskinen, MD; David Tuerlinckx, MD; Timothy Shope, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  No studies have systematically examined the accuracy of clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables in detecting renal scarring in children and adolescents with a first urinary tract infection.

Objectives  To identify independent prognostic factors for the development of renal scarring and to combine these factors in ...

Original Investigation 
Kiran More, MD, FRACP; Pankaj Sakhuja, MD; Prakesh S. Shah, MSc, MD, FRCPC
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Surfactant administration by minimally invasive methods that allow for spontaneous breathing might be safer and more effective than administration with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation; however, the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive methods have not been reviewed.

Objective  To conduct a meta-narrative review of ...

Valerie J. Flaherman, MD, MPH; Elena Fuentes-Afflick, MD, MPH
Pediatricians often encounter clinical scenarios in which individual health benefit, public health benefit, and social values intersect. For example, circumcision benefits health for an individual by reducing the risk of urinary tract and sexually transmitted infections and also has public health benefit by reducing overall population risk of sexually transmitted ...
Geetha A. Subramaniam, MD, DFAPA; Nora D. Volkov, MD
Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are the top 3 substances of misuse among teenagers. According to the Monitoring the Future study,1 marijuana use continues to increase in contrast to tobacco or alcohol use, which has leveled off; currently, more than one-third of 12th graders report having used marijuana in the past ...
Original Investigation 
Sharon Levy, MD, MPH; Roger Weiss, MD; Lon Sherritt, MPH; Rosemary Ziemnik, BS; Allegra Spalding, BA; Shari Van Hook, MPH; Lydia A. Shrier, MD, MPH

Importance  Screening adolescents for substance use and intervening immediately can reduce the burden of addiction and substance-related morbidity. Several screening tools have been developed to identify problem substance use for adolescents, but none have been calibrated to triage adolescents into clinically relevant risk categories to guide interventions....

Special Communication 
Annie Janvier, MD, PhD; John Lantos, MD; for the POST Investigators

When parents voice their dissatisfaction with the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), it is often not because they think their baby has not received good medical care. Instead, it is often because their needs have not been addressed. Policy statements and pedagogy alike urge professionals to be empathetic, ...

Original Investigation 
Eric A. Biondi, MD; Matthew Mischler, MD; Karen E. Jerardi, MD, MEd; Angela M. Statile, MD, MEd; Jason French, MD; Rianna Evans, MD; Vivian Lee, MD; Clifford Chen, MD; Carl Asche, PhD; Jinma Ren, PhD; Samir S. Shah, MD, MSCE; for the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) Network

Importance  Blood cultures are often obtained as part of the evaluation of infants with fever and these infants are typically observed until their cultures are determined to have no growth. However, the time to positivity of blood culture results in this population is not known.

Objective  ...

Original Investigation 
Shilpa Gulati, MS; Chris A. Andrews, PhD; Alexandra O. Apkarian, MD; David C. Musch, PhD, MPH; Paul P. Lee, MD, JD; Joshua D. Stein, MD, MS
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Strabismus causes irreversible vision loss if not detected and treated early. It is unclear whether birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) are risk factors for strabismus.

Objective  To estimate the effect of BW and GA on the likelihood of premature infants developing strabismus.

Design, ...

Aimee M. Grace, MD, MPH; Roy Ahn, MPH, ScD; Wendy Macias Konstantopoulos, MD, MPH
Today in the United States, human trafficking occurs in cities, suburbs, and rural areas across all 50 US states.1 “Severe forms” of human trafficking are defined under the US Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 as the following: (1) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by ...
Angela Diaz, MD, MPH; Ellen Wright Clayton, MD, JD; Patti Simon, MPH
Health care professionals who routinely interact with young people have an important role to play in preventing, identifying, and responding to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors. These crimes—which include any sexual activity with someone younger than 18 years in exchange for something of value—occur every day in ...

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