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 Showing 1-20 of 25 Articles
Elliott M. Weiss, MD; Steven Joffe, MD, MPH

This Viewpoint proposes that disclosures in comparative effectiveness randomized clinical trials should provide patients with appropriate information, including about risks, that are necessary to decide whether to join the trial, request a study treatment outside the trial, or select another available treatment.

Editorial  FREE
Jeffrey R. Starke, MD; Mary Anne Jackson, MD

For centuries, a guiding principle for health care workers (HCWs) has been primum non nocere, or first do no harm. Although this adage has been applied mostly to therapeutic interventions, it also infers that HCWs should not spread infections to their patients, especially the most vulnerable patients. ...

Alain Joffe, MD, MPH; Cherrie B. Boyer, PhD; Maria T. Britto, MD, MPH

This year, adolescent pregnancy rates in the United States reached historic lows.1 Similarly, the percentage of youths 12 to 17 years of age with severe mental health impairments decreased by 20% since the late 1990s.2 Death rates among 15- to 24-year-olds have also declined steadily since ...

Original Investigation 
Thiago Modesto, MSc; Henning Tiemeier, MD, PhD; Robin P. Peeters, MD, PhD; Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, MD, PhD; Albert Hofman, MD, PhD; Frank C. Verhulst, MD, PhD; Akhgar Ghassabian, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy can affect children’s cognitive development. Nevertheless, the behavioral outcomes of children exposed prenatally to mild thyroid hormone insufficiency are understudied.

Objective  To examine whether exposure to maternal mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in early pregnancy was related to symptoms of ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Julia E. Szymczak, PhD; Sarah Smathers, MPH, CIC; Cindy Hoegg, RN, CIC; Sarah Klieger, MPH; Susan E. Coffin, MD, MPH; Julia S. Sammons, MD, MSCE
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  When clinicians work with symptoms of infection, they can put patients and colleagues at risk. Little is known about the reasons why attending physicians and advanced practice clinicians (APCs) work while sick.

Objective  To identify a comprehensive understanding of the reasons why attending physicians and ...

Editorial: When The Health Care Worker Is Sick; Jeffrey R. Starke, MD; Mary Anne Jackson, MD
Original Investigation 
Laura K. Murray, PhD; Stephanie Skavenski, MSW, MPH; Jeremy C. Kane, PhD; John Mayeya, MSc; Shannon Dorsey, PhD; Judy A. Cohen, MD; Lynn T. M. Michalopoulos, PhD; Mwiya Imasiku, PhD; Paul A. Bolton, MBBS
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) are at high risk for experiencing trauma and related psychosocial problems. Despite this, no randomized clinical trials have studied evidence-based treatments for OVC in low-resource settings.

Objective  To evaluate the effectiveness of lay counselor–provided trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) to ...

Original Investigation 
David Finkelhor, PhD; Heather A. Turner, PhD; Anne Shattuck, MA; Sherry L. Hamby, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  It is important to estimate the burden of and trends for violence, crime, and abuse in the lives of children.

Objective  To provide health care professionals, policy makers, and parents with current estimates of exposure to violence, crime, and abuse across childhood and at different ...

Morgan K. Richards, MD, MPH; Meera Kotagal, MD, MPH; Adam B. Goldin, MD, MPH

Physicians strive to provide the best care for their patients, but defining the best care can be challenging. The diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis requires reconciling many factors often in conflict with one another. In this setting, imaging has taken on a prominent role. Computed tomography (CT) has higher ...

Original Investigation 
Richard G. Bachur, MD; Jason A. Levy, MD; Michael J. Callahan, MD; Shawn J. Rangel, MD; Michael C. Monuteaux, ScD
Includes: Supplemental Content, Multimedia: (powerpoint)

Importance  Advanced diagnostic imaging is commonly used in the evaluation of suspected appendicitis in children. Despite its inferior diagnostic performance, ultrasonography (US) is now preferred to computed tomography (CT) owing to concerns about ionizing radiation exposure. With changes in imaging modalities, the influence on outcomes should be ...

Editorial: Campaigns Against Ionizing Radiation and Pediatric Appendicitis; Morgan K. Richards, MD, MPH; Meera Kotagal, MD, MPH; Adam B. Goldin, MD, MPH
Michele P. Hamm, PhD; Amanda S. Newton, PhD; Annabritt Chisholm, BSc; Jocelyn Shulhan, BSc; Andrea Milne, MLIS; Purnima Sundar, PhD; Heather Ennis, MA; Shannon D. Scott, PhD; Lisa Hartling, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Social media has had a profound effect on how children and adolescents interact. While there are many benefits to the use of social media, cyberbullying has emerged as a potential harm, raising questions regarding its influence on mental health.

Objective  To review existing publications that ...

Research Letter 
Robert G. Badgett, MD; Mohinder Vindhyal, MD; Jason T. Stirnaman, MLS; C. Michael Gibson, MD; Rim Halaby, MD

This research letter explores the method of a living systematic review using the topic of nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis.

Marianne E. McPherson, PhD, MS; Peter A. Gloor, PhD; Lauren A. Smith, MD, MPH

This Viewpoint discusses using Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Networks to address complex problems related to children’s health.

On My Mind 
Philip B. Cawkwell, BA

“You want to talk about his weight, don’t you?”

Hilary J. Vernon, MD, PhD

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are a large class of genetic disorders characterized by disruption of cellular biochemical functions. Although individual IEMs are rare, collectively they represent a large and diverse class of genetic conditions, with new disorders and disease mechanisms being described regularly. Advances in the understanding ...

Research Letter 
Francis de Zegher, MD, PhD; Marta Díaz, PhD; Lourdes Ibáñez, MD, PhD

This research letter explores whether differential telomere lengthening could exert more long-term benefits compared with oral contraceptives in adolescent girls with hyperinsulinemic androgen excess.

Lisa G. Smithers, MPH, PhD; Michael S. Kramer, MD; John W. Lynch, MPH, MEd, PhD

This Viewpoint explains the strengths and weaknesses of different study designs as they relate to the breastfeeding literature, then assesses the effect of breastfeeding on obesity and IQ.

Original Investigation 
Angela Kribs, MD; Claudia Roll, MD; Wolfgang Göpel, MD; Christian Wieg, MD; Peter Groneck, MD; Reinhard Laux, MD; Norbert Teig, MD; Thomas Hoehn, MD; Wolfgang Böhm, MD; Lars Welzing, MD; Matthias Vochem, MD; Marc Hoppenz, MD; Christoph Bührer, MD; Katrin Mehler, MD; Hartmut Stützer, PhD; Jeremy Franklin, PhD; Andreas Stöhr, PhD; Egbert Herting, MD; Bernhard Roth, MD; for the NINSAPP Trial Investigators
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) preserves surfactant and keeps the lung open but is insufficient in severe surfactant deficiency. Traditional surfactant administration is related to short periods of positive pressure ventilation and implies the risk of lung ...

Editorial: CPAP, Surfactant, or Both for the Preterm Infant; Peter A. Dargaville, MBBS, FRACP, MD
Original Investigation 
Tetsuya Isayama, MD; Chatree Chai-Adisaksopha, MD; Sarah D. McDonald, MD, MSc
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Controversy exists regarding which of the 2 major strategies currently used to prevent chronic lung disease (CLD) in preterm infants is optimal: noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) or intubate-surfactant-extubate (INSURE). Preterm infants often require surfactant administration because of respiratory distress syndrome.

Objective  To evaluate ...

Editorial: CPAP, Surfactant, or Both for the Preterm Infant; Peter A. Dargaville, MBBS, FRACP, MD
Marian Jarlenski, PhD, MPH

This Viewpoint discusses the future of the Children’s Health Insurance Program.

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