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Time is precious. In newborn screening (NBS), more time is often associated with increased risk—risk to a child’s health that comes with the passing of time between NBS and diagnosis of a disorder. In their article titled “Nationwide Neonatal Screening for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Sweden: A 26-Year Longitudinal Prospective ...
Original Investigation 
Douglas Zatzick, MD; Joan Russo, PhD; Sarah Peregrine Lord, MA; Christopher Varley, MD; Jin Wang, MS, PhD; Lucy Berliner, MSW; Gregory Jurkovich, MD; Lauren K. Whiteside, MD, MS; Stephen O’Connor, PhD; Frederick P. Rivara, MD, MPH

Importance  Violence and injury risk behaviors, alcohol and drug use problems, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms occur frequently among adolescents presenting to acute care medical settings after traumatic physical injury.

Objective  To test the effectiveness of a stepped collaborative care intervention targeting this ...

Original Investigation 
Sebastian Gidlöf, MD, PhD; Anna Wedell, MD, PhD; Claes Guthenberg, PhD; Ulrika von Döbeln, MD, PhD; Anna Nordenström, MD, PhD

Importance  Recent reports have questioned the rationale for neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to low sensitivity in salt-wasting forms and a high rate of recall (ie, a positive finding resulting in a visit to a pediatrician and a second test) in preterm infants.

Objective...

Viewpoint 
David M. Rubin, MD, MSCE; Kathleen Noonan, JD
The magic year for the Affordable Care Act (ACA), 2014, is now upon us. The transition of millions of uninsured individuals into new insurance exchange markets has not been smooth, but as the challenges are addressed, our collective attention should turn to ensuring that the law meets the needs of ...
Editorial 
Dennis R. Durbin, MD, MSCE; Jessica Mirman, PhD; Allison Curry, PhD, MPH
While progress has been made in reducing the number of teens killed in motor vehicle crashes, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for teens in the United States.1 The high crash rate for teens is owing in large part to their lack of driving experience.2,3 Continued identification ...
Original Investigation 
Marie Claude Ouimet, PhD; Thomas G. Brown, PhD; Feng Guo, PhD; Sheila G. Klauer, PhD; Bruce G. Simons-Morton, EdD, MPH; Youjia Fang, MSc; Suzanne E. Lee, PhD; Christina Gianoulakis, PhD; Thomas A. Dingus, PhD

Importance  Road traffic crashes are one of the leading causes of injury and death among teenagers worldwide. Better understanding of the individual pathways to driving risk may lead to better-targeted intervention in this vulnerable group.

Objective  To examine the relationship between cortisol, a neurobiological marker of ...

Original Investigation 
Asheley Cockrell Skinner, PhD; Joseph A. Skelton, MD, MS
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Childhood obesity is the focus of public health efforts and accurate estimates of the prevalence and severity of obesity are needed for policy decisions and directions for future research.

Objective  To examine the prevalence of obesity and severe obesity over time for 14 years of ...

On My Mind 
Neil L. Schechter, MD
The glum 16-year-old girl sat disconsolately looking at her shoes, while her mother unfurled their story. Two years ago, seemingly out of the blue, her daughter reported that her abdomen hurt. She could not identify an antecedent event that triggered her pain nor could she discern a pattern to the ...
Viewpoint 
Catherine E. M. Aiken, PhD, MRCOG; Abigail L. Fowden, PhD; Gordon C. S. Smith, MD, PhD, DSc
Administration of glucocorticoids to pregnant women to accelerate fetal lung maturation prior to preterm birth is one of the most effective interventions in perinatal medicine. Its success led to the evaluation of glucocorticoid administration prior to prelabor cesarean delivery between 37 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks 6 days of ...
Editorial 
Michael Rich, MD, MPH
Pediatricians,1,2 psychologists,3 and other health professionals4 have long cautioned about the physical and mental health effects of children’s media use. Parents have also been concerned; however, on the whole, they have been slow to respond to potential risks. The immediate practical advantages and believed educational benefits of entertaining children with ...
Original Investigation 
Amy M. Bernhardt, MEd; Cara Wilking, JD; Mark Gottlieb, JD; Jennifer Emond, PhD; James D. Sargent, MD

Importance  Since 2009, quick-service restaurant chains, or fast-food companies, have agreed to depict healthy foods in their advertising targeted at children.

Objective  To determine how children interpreted depictions of milk and apples in television advertisements for children’s meals by McDonald’s and Burger King (BK) restaurants.

Design, ...

Original Investigation 
Douglas A. Gentile, PhD; Rachel A. Reimer, PhD; Amy I. Nathanson, PhD; David A. Walsh, PhD; Joey C. Eisenmann, PhD

Importance  Children spend more time with electronic media than they do in any other activity, aside from sleep. Many of the negative effects that stem from media exposure may be reduced by parental monitoring of children's media use; however, there lacks a clear understanding of the mechanisms ...

Original Investigation 
Douglas A. Gentile, PhD; Dongdong Li, PhD; Angeline Khoo, PhD; Sara Prot, MA; Craig A. Anderson, PhD

Importance  Although several longitudinal studies have demonstrated an effect of violent video game play on later aggressive behavior, little is known about the psychological mediators and moderators of the effect.

Objective  To determine whether cognitive and/or emotional variables mediate the effect of violent video game play ...

Original Investigation 
Stephen P. Lewis, PhD; Jasmine C. Mahdy, MA; Natalie J. Michal, MA; Alexis E. Arbuthnott, MA

Importance  Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), the deliberate destruction of one's body tissue without suicidal intent, is a significant issue for many youth. Research suggests that adolescents and emerging adults prefer the Internet as a means to retrieve NSSI resources and that important others (eg, caregivers) may also seek ...

On My Mind 
Mariana Glusman, MD
Anthony is a 7-year-old autistic boy with the most beautiful hazel eyes and the longest eyelashes I’ve ever seen. I’ve been his pediatrician since he was an infant. He was born with a hemangioma on the tip of his nose that required high-dose steroids, so he was a huge baby, ...
Topics: pediatrics
Original Investigation 
Stacey S. Tiberio, PhD; David C. R. Kerr, PhD; Deborah M. Capaldi, PhD; Katherine C. Pears, PhD; Hyoun K. Kim, PhD; Paulina Nowicka, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Although children’s media consumption has been one of the most robust risk factors for childhood obesity, effects of specific parenting influences, such as parental media monitoring, have not been effectively investigated.

Objectives  To examine the potential influences of maternal and paternal monitoring of child media ...

Original Investigation 
Hong Jiang, PhD; Mu Li, PhD; Li Ming Wen, PhD; Qiaozhen Hu, MS; Dongling Yang, MS; Gengsheng He, PhD; Louise A. Baur, PhD; Michael J. Dibley, MPH; Xu Qian, PhD

Importance  Appropriate infant feeding practices have the potential for long-term health effects. However, research findings on improving early infant feeding practices are limited. The wide use of mobile phone short message service (SMS) provides new opportunities for health promotion and services.

Objective  To assess the effect ...

Original Investigation 
Trina Hinkley, PhD; Vera Verbestel, MSc; Wolfgang Ahrens, PhD; Lauren Lissner, PhD; Dénes Molnár, PhD; Luis A. Moreno, PhD; Iris Pigeot, PhD; Hermann Pohlabeln, PhD; Lucia A. Reisch, PhD; Paola Russo, BSc; Toomas Veidebaum, PhD; Michael Tornaritis, PhD; Garrath Williams, PhD; Stefaan De Henauw, PhD; Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, PhD; for the IDEFICS Consortium

Importance  Identifying associations between preschool-aged children’s electronic media use and their later well-being is essential to supporting positive long-term outcomes.

Objective  To investigate possible dose-response associations of young children’s electronic media use with their later well-being.

Design, Setting, and Participants  The IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention ...

Original Investigation 
Marcella Marinelli, MSc, PhD; Jordi Sunyer, MD, PhD; Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, PhD; Carmen Iñiguez, PhD; Maties Torrent, MD, PhD; Jesús Vioque; Michelle C. Turner, PhD; Jordi Julvez, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  This study used longitudinal data to examine potential associations between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children.

Objective  To examine the association between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in preschool and school-aged children.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Longitudinal, multicenter study ...

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