Accepted for Publication: July 13, 2011.
Published Online: October 3, 2011. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.183
Author Contributions: Dr Hawkins had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Hawkins, Oesterle, Brown, Monahan, Abbott, Arthur, and Catalano. Acquisition of data: Hawkins, Arthur, and Catalano. Analysis and interpretation of data: Hawkins, Oesterle, Brown, Monahan, Abbott, Arthur, and Catalano. Drafting of the manuscript: Hawkins, Oesterle, Brown, and Monahan. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hawkins, Oesterle, Brown, Monahan, Abbott, Arthur, and Catalano. Statistical analysis: Oesterle, Brown, Monahan, and Abbott. Obtained funding: Hawkins, Arthur, and Catalano. Administrative, technical, and material support: Hawkins and Oesterle. Study supervision: Hawkins, Arthur, and Catalano.
Financial Disclosure: Dr Catalano is a board member of Channing Bete Company, distributor of Supporting School Success and Guiding Good Choices. These programs were used in some communities in the study that produced the data set used in this article.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by research grant R01 DA015183-03 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, with cofunding from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Mental Health, the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, analysis, or preparation of data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The content of this article is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.
Additional Contributions: David M. Murray, PhD, Ohio State University, provided paid statistical consultation on this project, but the authors are responsible for all analyses and results. We acknowledge the contributions of the communities participating in the Community Youth Development Study and the collaborating state offices of drug abuse prevention in Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, Oregon, Utah, and Washington.