With modern therapies and supportive care, survival of childhood cancer has increased considerably. Patients who have survived cancers involving the central nervous system or who have received therapy toxic to the developing brain are at risk of long-term neurocognitive sequelae. Negative outcomes are observed most frequently in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. The Children's Oncology Group Long-term Follow-up Guidelines Task Force on Neurocognitive/Behavioral Complications After Childhood Cancer has generated risk-based, exposure-related guidelines designed to direct the follow-up care of survivors of pediatric malignancies based on a comprehensive literature review and expert opinion. This article expands on these guidelines by reviewing the risk factors for the development of neurocognitive sequelae and describing the expected pattern of these disabilities. We herein present recommendations for the screening and management of neurocognitive late effects and outline important areas of school and legal advocacy for survivors with disabilities. Finally, we list resources that can guide patients, their parents, and their medical caregivers as they face the long-term neurocognitive consequences of cancer therapy.
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