Tobacco is the leading cause of death in the United States, and the vast majority of adults who smoke begin during childhood and adolescence. Although the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998 resulted in restriction of certain types of marketing and youth access to tobacco, the tobacco industry still spent more than $14 billion in advertising in 2003. This study provides national data on the differential effects of retail marketing strategies on smoking uptake by children and adolescents. From 1999 to 2003, data were collected from 26 000 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students. Higher levels of advertising, lower cigarette prices, and a greater availability of cigarette promotions were associated with smoking uptake. Availability of advertising increased the likelihood that youth would move from experimentation with tobacco to regular smoking. The increase in cigarette retail marketing is at least partly offsetting any benefits of other Master Settlement Agreement–related marketing reductions.