There are an estimated 3.9 million people in the United States infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Persons transfused as neonates before July 1992 represent an unknown, but potentially significant, proportion of those estimated to be infected with HCV. This study examined individuals transfused as neonates in Anchorage, Alaska, between 1975 and 1992. Among those screened, 3% were hepatitis C antibody positive and a small number were HCV ribonucleic acid positive. Half of the individuals who responded to the survey were not aware that they had received a transfusion. This study indicates that it may be prudent to screen all neonatal intensive care unit patients for HCV who had been transfused before July 1992.