Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but pericardial involvement with this microorganism is rare and our MEDLINE search did not disclose any previous report of Pseudomonas pericarditis in infancy. We describe an 11-month-old infant with HIV infection who had pericarditis with effusion and tamponade caused by P aeruginosa.
Patient Report. An 11-month-old female infant was admitted with fever and cough of 24 hours' duration. Diagnosis of HIV infection had been previously established by positive HIV viral culture and DNA polymerase chain reaction. Developmental delay and progressive cerebral atrophy on serial magnetic resonance imaging were indicative of HIV encephalopathy. Her immunoglobulin levels were elevated (IgG, 43.9 g/L; IgM, 5.12 g/L; and IgA, 1.25 g/L) and lymphocyte subsets showed low CD4+ values (0.14; absolute count, 0.53×109/L) and high CD8+ values (0.36; absolute count, 1.37×109/L), with a reversed CD4:CD8