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Article |

Preoperative Anxiety in Children Predictors and Outcomes

Zeev N. Kain, MD; Linda C. Mayes, MD; Theresa Z. O'Connor, PhD; Domenic V. Cicchetti, PhD
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996;150(12):1238-1245. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1996.02170370016002.
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Objective:  To determine predictors and behavioral outcomes of preoperative anxiety in children undergoing surgery.

Design:  A prospective, longitudinal study.

Setting:  A university children's hospital.

Participants:  One hundred sixty-three children, 2 to 10 years of age (and their parents), who underwent general anesthesia and elective surgery.

Main Outcome Measures:  In the preoperative holding area, anxiety level of the child and parents was determined using self-reported and independent observational measures. At separation to the operating room, the anxiety level of the child and parents was rated again. Postoperative behavioral responses were evaluated 3 times (at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year).

Results:  A multiple regression model (R2=0.58, F=6.4, P=.007) revealed that older children and children of anxious parents, who received low Emotionality, Activity, Sociability, and Impulsivity (EASI) ratings for activity, and with a history of poor-quality medical encounters demonstrated higher levels of anxiety in the preoperative holding area. A similar model (R2=0.42, F=8.6, P=.001) revealed that children who received low EASI ratings for activity, with a previous hospitalization, who were not enrolled in day care, and who did not undergo premedication were more anxious at separation to the operating room. Overall, 54% of children exhibited some negative behavioral responses at the 2-week follow-up. Twenty percent of the children continued to demonstrate negative behavior changes at 6-month follow-up, and, in 7.3% of the children, these behaviors persisted at 1-year follow-up. Nightmares, separation anxiety, eating problems, and increased fear of physicians were the most common problems at 2-week follow-up. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that child's age, number of siblings, and immediate preoperative anxiety of the child and mother predicted later behavioral problems.

Conclusions:  Variables such as situational anxiety of the mother, temperament of the child, age of the child, and quality of previous medical encounters predict a child's preoperative anxiety. Although immediate negative behavioral responses develop in a relatively large number of young children following surgery, the magnitude of these changes is limited, and long-term maladaptive behavioral responses develop in only a small minority.Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996;150:1238-1245


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