We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Pollutants in Breast Milk

Walter J. Rogan, MD
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996;150(9):981-990. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1996.02170340095018.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Objective:  To review data on the occurrence and toxicity of the commonly reported pesticides and industrial environmental pollutant chemicals in breast milk.

Data Sources:  Continuous automated literature surveillance plus contact with investigators and governmental agencies.

Study Selections:  For data on occurrence, the most recent data from the largest data sets on the most representative donors were used. For data on toxicity, the primary report that was publicly available was used.

Data Extraction:  When necessary, data were reexpressed or concentrations were rescaled. The original investigator was contacted if necessary.Data Synthesis: Although pollutant chemicals are readily detected in most human milk worldwide, there is little evidence for consequent morbidity in nurslings. There have been several mass poisonings in which chemicals that were transmitted through breast milk clearly affected children who were breast-fed, and there is some evidence that prenatal exposure to background levels resulted in mild developmental delay and that lactation per se was disturbed.

Conclusions:  Breast-feeding is recommended despite the presence of chemical residues. The prenatal period in the child and the initiation of lactation in the mother may be sensitive periods to the toxicity of the chemicals that are considered here, and the potential for poisoning at higher levels is clear. However, in the vast majority of women, the benefits of breast-feeding appear to outweigh the risks, and those who advise women about infant nutrition should continue to support breast-feeding.Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996;150:981-990


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.