As one of the earliest writers to delineate concern for pain infliction on our children patients, I found the article by Woodin et al1 particularly of interest and well done. Is it not perplexing that those of us pledged to relieve the suffering of "the little ones" find us in practice doing just the opposite, ie, hurting them! (I am 100% for full immunization, of course). The next problem to be faced in this area of pediatrics will be the grotesque cost per a single combination vaccine. What do you surmise the cost to the family will be for a vaccine within which is the DTP-Hib-IPV-MMR-HBV [diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis–Haemophilus influenzae type b–inactivated polio–measlesmumps-rubella–hepatitis B vaccine]? Perhaps you might have readers respond with their best estimates for this.