We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Does Increased Nitrate Ingestion Elevate Nitrate Levels in Human Milk?

Lois B. Dusdieker, MD, MS; Phyllis J. Stumbo, PhD, RD; Burton C. Kross, PhD, PE; Claibourne I. Dungy, MD, MPH
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996;150(3):311-314. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1996.02170280081015.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Objective:  To determine whether the nitrate content of human milk is influenced by maternal ingestion of water containing elevated nitrate levels.

Design:  Prospective, nonrandomized, volunteer study.

Setting:  Clinical Research Center at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City.

Patients:  Twenty healthy lactating women with infants older than 6 months.

Interventions:  The mothers were asked to consume a minimum of 1500 mL of water containing 0 mg of nitrate per liter on day 1, 45 mg on day 2, and 100 mg on day 3 in addition to consuming and recording their dietary intake. Breast-feeding was permitted during days 1 and 2, but milk was expressed on day 3 and the infants were given alternate food sources. After each 24-hour study day, maternal urine and milk samples were collected and frozen. A modified cadmium column reduction method was used to determine spot urinary and milk nitrate content.

Results:  The mean total nitrate intake from diet and water on days 1, 2, and 3, respectively, was 46.6, 168.1, and 272.0 mg. Spot urine nitrate content on days 1, 2, and 3, respectively, was 36.0, 66.0, and 84.0 mg. Nitrate concentration of human milk on days 1, 2, and 3, respectively, was 4.4, 5.1, and 5.2 mg/L.

Conclusion:  Women who consume water with a nitrate concentration of 100 mg/L or less do not produce milk with elevated nitrate levels.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996;150:311-314)


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.