To determine the precision (interobserver agreement) and accuracy (agreement with criterion standard) of clinical and radiological signs in premature infants at risk of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with left-to-right shunting.
Masked comparison of clinical and radiological examination with Doppler flow echocardiography (criterion standard).
Neonatal intensive care unit.
One hundred infants with birth weights less than 1750 g were studied once between days 3 and 7 of life. A third of the cohort was intubated at the time of study.
Five independent observers noted the presence or absence of an increased pulse volume, an active precordium, a heart murmur, a cardiothoracic ratio greater than 60%, increased pulmonary vascular markings on a concurrent chest x-ray film, and a relative increase of the cardiothoracic ratio compared with that from the previous chest x-ray film. Pulsed and color flow Doppler echocardiography was performed within 4 hours. All 100 tapes were reviewed by a second pediatric cardiologist.
Twenty-three infants had a PDA with left-to-right shunting. The precision of clinical signs was modest, with average κ values of 0.15 fκr pulse volume, 0.32 for precordium, and 0.41 for murmur. Pulse quality (43%) and murmur (42%) had the highest mean sensitivities. Corresponding specificities were 74% for pulse volume and 87% for murmur. The combination of a cardiac murmur with an abnormal pulse volume had the highest positive predictive value (77%). The radiological examination did not improve the observers' ability to distinguish between patients with and without PDA.
The precision and accuracy of clinical and radiological signs of a PDA with left-to-right shunting are unsatisfactory. Therefore, Doppler flow echocardiography is required to diagnose PDA confidently in preterm infants between days 3 and 7 of life.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149:1136-1141)