To determine risk factors for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) after treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
Retrospective case-control study.
Tertiary care level 3 neonatal intensive care unit.
Seventy-three newborns treated with ECMO for severe respiratory failure during a 5-year period, who survived until day of life 28, and who did not have pulmonary hypoplasia as the initial cause for respiratory failure.
Main Outcome Measure:
The presence of BPD after treatment with ECMO, which was defined as oxygen and/or ventilatory requirements at day of life 28, with characteristic abnormalities seen on chest x-ray film.
The age at ECMO initiation was significantly greater for patients with BPD compared with patients without BPD (mean±SD, 135±68 hours vs 50±37 hours; P<.001). There was an 11.5-fold increased risk for the development of BPD if ECMO was initiated at greater than 96 hours of age. The primary diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome imparted a 5.2-fold increased risk for the development of BPD. Patients with BPD required ECMO significantly longer than patients without BPD (203±73 hours vs 122±51 hours; P<.001).
These results demonstrate that delayed use of ECMO in treating neonatal respiratory failure is associated with an increased risk for the development of BPD and a longer duration of ECMO therapy.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148:820-825)