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A Search for Persistent Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine Virus in Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

Lisa M. Frenkel, MD; Karin Nielsen, MD; Alice Garakian, BS; James D. Cherry, MD
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148(1):57-60. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1994.02170010059012.
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Objective:  To determine whether live measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine viruses persist after immunization of immunocompromised children with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

Methods:  Ten children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection who received measles, mumps, and rubella immunizations were studied. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and plasma were cocultivated with primary African green monkey kidney tissue culture cells for detection of measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. Antibody to measles and mumps was determined by indirect fluorescent antibody and rubella was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children seronegative to measles were revaccinated.

Results:  Neither measles, mumps, nor rubella virus was recovered from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or plasma in these children. No child experienced symptoms thought to be related to the vaccines. Humoral immunity after one or two immunizations was detected in 33% of the children. After vaccination, two of 10 children had IgG to measles; four of 10, to mumps; and four of 10, to rubella.

Conclusions:  In spite of an impaired humoral immune response, persistent viremia or infection did not occur after immunization with attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine viruses. These findings suggest that immunologic response to these viruses was sufficient to prevent persistent infection in these children immunocompromised by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148:57-60)

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