• We compared the current prevalence and severity of chronic uveitis in children with pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in Seattle, Wash, with that of children with the same condition in the same area in 1975. The prevalence of eye disease decreased from 45% in 1975 to 13% in 1989, and the proportion of patients with severe visual loss decreased from 21% in 1975 to none in 1989. We could not attribute these findings to differences in known risk factors for iritis, such as age, sex, or presence of antinuclear antibodies. There was no difference in the duration of follow-up between the two groups. It is possible that the decline in prevalence of uveitis reflects a referral bias for eye disease in the 1975 population. However, the decrease in disease severity remains unexplained and may represent more effective treatment, earlier surveillance for ocular disease, or a change in the frequency of ocular manifestations of this disease in the 1989 group.