• The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perinatal cocaine exposure and the prevalence of hearing deficit in the newborn. Auditory brain-stem response testing was performed on 50 infants of cocaineabusing mothers and 50 control infants. All infants were born at full term. Cocaine-exposed infants had lower birth weights and a greater incidence of maternal tobacco and alcohol use. No differences were found in size, method of delivery, Apgar scores, or use of other illicit substances. Four infants of cocaine-abusing mothers and two control infants failed initial auditory brain-stem response testing. There were no differences in absolute or interpeak latencies of waveforms noted between the two groups. These data suggest that there is no increased incidence of hearing deficit as determined by auditory brain-stem response in newborns of cocaine-abusing mothers born at term and without other risk factors.