• In 1986, a practice management training program was developed for pediatric house staff. In conjunction with this program, pediatric residents for the following 2 years completed questionnaires regarding their career goals, interests, and perceived competence in practice management. Postgraduate level–3 residents who completed the program felt more competent than postgraduate level–1 residents in all areas of practice management and were more likely to take an active role in managing their practice. There was a significant difference between postgraduate level–1 and level–3 residents who completed the program in several areas: feelings of overall competence in office management, choosing a practice location, office staff, appointment system, billing system, office computer, fee schedules, telephone management, and setting up an office laboratory. Exposure to a practice management program during residency training may better prepare future pediatricians for a successful practice.