• Conditions with disproportionately short trachea, with a reduced number of tracheal cartilage rings and a high level of tracheal bifurcation, have been reported. We have seen accidental bronchial intubation in nine patients with short trachea. This risk can be reduced by recognition of conditions associated with short trachea, by awareness that methods for calculating endotracheal tube length from body length can overpredict tube length for patients with short trachea, and, when feasible, by use of preintubation chest roentgenograms showing air bronchograms to establish the thoracic level of tracheal bifurcation. Twelve patients with short trachea, four with bronchial intubation, and six conditions not previously associated with short trachea, are reported. Three of the patients also had laryngeal hypoplasia.