• In 1985, fire and/or burn injuries killed 1461 children aged 0 to 19 years in the United States; an estimated 23 638 children were hospitalized and 440 000 were treated for burns. More than 101 000 life years were lost. A "cost of burn injury" model suggests a dollar value of societal losses from childhood burn deaths and injuries at approximately $3.5 billion. Very young children (0 to 4 years) dying in house fires accounted for 47% of these deaths. Preventing fire deaths through residential sprinklers, smoke detectors, fire-safe cigarettes, and child-resistant lighters would prevent more than three quarters of all childhood fire/burn deaths. While interventions exist for tap water scalds, solutions to the problems of "kitchen" scalds and gasoline-involved flame burns are less apparent.