• Seventy-one ventilated very-low-birth-weight infants (birth weight, 500 to 1250 g) with (n=30) and without (n=41) bronchopulmonary dysplasia were studied to compare their growth achievements and to determine the association between neurodevelopmental outcome, growth, and nutrition. Growth delay was observed in both groups. No association was found between head circumference and percent weight loss, age to full gavage feeds, age to regain birth weight and energy intake at 2 and 4 weeks of life. Fifty percent of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and 37% of the control group had minor and major handicap. Mean duration of assisted ventilation was significantly longer in handicapped infants (21.5 vs 12.5 days; F=6.49; df=1,53). No association was found between abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome and weight, length, and head circumference at 12 and 21 months after term. Although mean energy intake per kilogram per day at 2 weeks of life was significantly lower in handicapped infants (344.82 vs 412.86 kJ; F = 7.6; df= 1,53), age to regain birth weight, age to full feeds, percent weight loss, and energy intake at 4,6, and 8 weeks of life did not differ significantly between normal and handicapped infants. Aggressive nutritional support to promote growth in ventilated very-low-birth-weight infants may not influence the neurodevelopmental outcome.