• An 8-year-old boy with idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis and multiple fractures had three abnormalities of bone mineral metabolism: calcitonin deficiency, elevated serum calcitriol concentrations, and hypercalciuria. Calcitonin deficiency was documented by two attempts to stimulate calcitonin secretion with intravenous calcium and pentagastrin. Treatment for 11 months with daily subcutaneous injections of human calcitonin and oral administration of calcitriol failed to reduce the excessive bone resorption observed on bone biopsy, and the fracture rate did not decrease. Treatment was discontinued for two months, then resumed with calcitonin injections and oral calcium supplementation. The fracture rate decreased but bone biopsy continued to show excessive resorption. Therapy was discontinued. After the onset of puberty, endogenous calcitonin was detectable. Exogenous calcitonin therapy may have failed to control bone resorption for several reasons: insufficient dose, reduction of bone receptors from long-term calcitonin exposure, secondary hyperparathyroidism, or lack of association between calcitonin deficiency and the bone disease.