• Because concern has been raised about the efficacy and safety of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FFB) in pediatric patients with chronic cardiopulmonary disorders, we reviewed the results of 129 flexible endoscopies performed on 47 children with a history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) at our institution over a 44-month period. Indications for FFB; weight and age of the patient; and procedure format, including medication usage, findings, specimen results, and complications, were analyzed. Evaluation of previously diagnosed subglottic stenosis and airway abnormalities were the two most common indications (33% and 32%, respectively). Persistent or recurrent infiltrates or atelectasis, need for cultures, stridor, failure to extubate, hoarseness, and persistent wheeze were also cited. Endoscopic diagnoses included adenoidal hypertrophy, laryngomalacia, vocal cord abnormalities, interarytenoid membrane, subglottic stenosis, granulomas, tracheobronchomalacia, stenosis, obstruction, generalized inflammation/edema, polyps, tracheal bronchi, and anomalous bronchial anatomy. Cytomegalovirus, pneumococcus, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas, or mixed gram-negative flora were isolated from some patients without tracheostomy. Minor complications (transient bradycardia, mild nasopharyngeal bleeding, and mild worsening of upper airway obstruction) occurred in 3.1% of procedures, but no severe complications occurred. Management was directly affected by procedure results in 41% of procedures. We concluded that the FFB can be a safe, useful procedure in the management of children with BPD.