• The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with injuries in the first three years of life and to assess their predictive utility. The parents of 918 children (82% of an eligible birth cohort) completed a telephone interview to document injury histories. The occurrence of injury was then linked to previously obtained information characterizing early childhood. Several determinant associations were found for injuries seen by a physician and for those requiring treatment. Maternal factors (single, unemployed, smoking) were dominant in both instances. From these factors, logistic regression models were developed from which adjusted relative risk estimates were derived. The presence of all three maternal factors, as well as the absence of a younger sibling, increases the probability of an injury from 20% to over 60%. These findings may be used to assist in the development of preventive programs by targeting children at increased risk. They also provide a basis for further studies that will permit a better understanding of the causal mechanisms linking maternal factors to preschool injury.