• Double-lumen central venous catheters (CVCs) have been introduced recently for use in pediatric patients. The objective of our study was to determine if double-lumen CVC usage increased the possibility of infectious and mechanical complications compared with that of traditional single-lumen CVCs in a population at high risk for infection (oncology patients). Thirty pediatric patients (2.5±3.0 years old; mean±SD) who received single-lumen CVCs were compared with 31 patients (5.9±4.7 years old) who received double-lumen CVCs. The incidence of infectious complications was compared while controlling for potential confounding variables. Fifty-seven percent (17/30) of patients in the single-lumen group experienced bacteremia or cellulitis that required removal of six catheters compared with a rate of 52% (16/31) and nine catheter removals In the double-lumen group. Fewer manipulations occurred In the single-lumen group compared with the double-lumen group, but the Incidence of mechanical complications tended to be greater. When managed carefully, double-lumen CVCs were not associated with a greater risk of infection than single-lumen CVCs.