A 12-year-old black boy was admitted to the hospital with gross hematuria that included clots, dysuria, and abdominal and back pain. He had a history of hemoglobin SA disease (HbSA) (sickle cell trait) and recurrent episodes of painless gross hematuria for nine months. His blood pressure was 140/92 mm Hg, but physical findings were normal. Specifically, no abdominal mass was palpable. Urinary laboratory findings were as follows: specific gravity, 1.014; dipstick protein, 3+; and dipstick blood, 3+. An intravenous urogram (Fig 1) and a renal arteriogram (Fig 2) were obtained. Urinary cytologic examination showed nonspecific, atypical red blood cells. Exploratory laparotomy was performed.
Denouement and Discussion
Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Child With Hemoglobin SA Disease
Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the presence of a right renal neoplasm that required nephrectomy. Histopathologic analysis of the neoplasm revealed papillary renal cell carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma is rare, but it has been reported with increasing