• A survey on PhDs in academic pediatric departments was sent to members of the Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairmen (70% responded). Significant numbers (14.5%) of pediatric faculty members hold PhDs. Another 3.6% hold PhDs/MDs. Research is their major responsibility in every subspecialty except psychology. The majority of PhDs (51%) are assistant professors (8% tenured) in contrast to 37% of MD faculty (14% tenured). The majority of PhDs at full professor (56%) are tenured compared with only 44% of MDs. Separate criteria exist for promotion for PhDs in 42% of departments. For promotion to associate professor, the mean number of refereed publications is 18 (median, 15); for full professor, the number ranges from ten to 50 (median, 40). Extramural research funding carries the highest weight in evaluating research efforts. PhDs could impact significantly on long-range planning in academic pediatric departments.