• We reviewed the effects of a brief course of testosterone enanthate (four intramuscular injections of 200 mg at three-week intervals) on pubertal advancement and final adult height in 50 male patients with delayed puberty. Although those treated with testosterone were slightly older than a group of 38 untreated subjects, the two groups had similar baseline mean bone age delays, height z scores, Tanner stages, predicted adult heights, growth rates, and midparental heights. Four months after baseline, the treated group had a significantly greater mean increase in the height z score and sexual maturation index. At 12 months, the mean increase in the sexual maturation index remained greater in the treated group. Among treated and untreated subjects older than 17 years, there was no significant difference in the absolute height z score. Over 95% of treated subjects were satisfied with the effects of therapy.