• To evaluate the use of pelvic ultrasonography in the diagnosis and management of female adolescents with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), sonograms of 60 patients with PID were compared with those of 40 age-matched controls. Sonograms were evaluated for adnexal volume, adnexal adherence, uterine size, and the presence of cul-de-sac fluid. Eleven (19.3%) of the 57 patients with PID, in whom adequate sonograms were obtained, had tubo-ovarian abscesses; in seven of these patients, the abscesses were diagnosed ultrasonographically before suspected clinically. Even in those patients without tubo-ovarian abscesses, the mean (±SD) adnexal volume in the PID group was significantly larger than that of the control group (11.0±6.8 cm3 vs 5.2± 2.7 cm,3 respectively). Adnexal adherence, uterine size, and the presence of cul-de-sac fluid were not useful in differentiating patients with PID from normal controls. Pelvic ultrasonography can be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis and management of PID in adolescents and may, in some instances, provide diagnoses in the abscence of clinical findings.