• Young maternal age has been associated with adverse neonatal outcome, particularly an increased incidence of low birth weight (<2500 g) and neonatal mortality. Very young adolescents (<15 years old) and multiparous adolescents are at particularly high risk. Very young maternal age is probably a marker for one for more other maternal risk factors known to adversely affect neonatal outcome. Current studies do not provide adequate data to determine which risk factors account for the less-than-optimal outcome of the neonates of very young adolescents. Risk conditions that are potentially treatable include poor nutrition, substance use, and genital infections.