• Neonatal lupus erythematosus Is a rare syndrome occurring in the first six months of life. It Is characterized by the presence of Ro antibodies in the mother and affected infant, and at least one clinical manifestation—cardiac, hematologic, or dermatologic. If present, congenital heart block is Irreversible and may be life-threatening in the neonatal period. Mothers of infants with neonatal lupus erythematosus may be asymptomatic when the affected infant is born but may later develop connective-tissue disease. The affected infants are at risk to develop systemic lupus erythematosus during adolescence or adulthood.