• Indigent populations have received little attention in neonatal follow-up studies. We conducted "blinded" evaluations one year past term for 204 indigent high-risk infants who were ventilator treated or had a very low birth weight (VLBW) (≤1500 g) and 85 healthy term controls from families similar to those of the high-risk infants. Marked developmental delay (Bayley Mental Developmental Index, <70) or gross motor abnormality occurred in 2% of controls, 27% of VLBW infants, 33% of ventilatortreated infants, and 39% of ventilatortreated VLBW infants. Despite considerable effort to prevent attrition, 43% of high-risk survivors were unavailable for follow-up at the one-year visit. Even if all of these infants were assumed to be normal, the incidence of developmental delay exceeded that in 11 of 12 recent studies. Indigent high-risk infants deserve considerable follow-up attention because of their high rate of attrition and developmental delay.