• Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Arizona infants and children. A retrospective review of 102 cases of meningitis occurring in the American Indian population documents the prevalence of the Haemophilus influenzae organism with a peak incidence in the first year of life. The rate of H influenzae resistance to ampicillin was 16%. Overall morbidity and mortality rates are comparable with reviews of diverse populations, but there is an exceptional mortality and prolonged hospitalization in patients less than 1 year of age. The development of an efficacious vaccine against H influenzae may substantially reduce and prevent this cause of meningitis.