• We used Guttman scaling procedures to devise a quantitative, reproducible measure among pediatric residents of attitude change concerning neonatal resuscitation. Preliminary cross-sectional testing of an incoming group of pediatric level 1 residents and graduating pediatric level 3 residents indicated that pediatric level 3 residents were more reluctant to resuscitate highrisk infants. This reluctance was not due to age differences. The pediatric level 1 residents were retested at the completion of each year of training. Residents showed significantly increased reluctance to resuscitate infants at the end of the first year of training and again at the end of the third year of training. These attitude changes were unrelated to gender, marital status, religious preference, or ethnic background. Data acquired both cross-sectionally and longitudinally indicated that attitudes toward neonatal resuscitation changed during residency training.