• The hospital records of 45 infants and children with one or more blood cultures positive for Candida species were studied retrospectively in an attempt to define the risk of Candida-related complications. Death of eight of the patients (18%) was related to Candida infection, and five additional patients (11%) had metastatic foci of infection but survived. No characteristics were identified that would predict patients who were at high risk for complications of candidemia. Eleven patients were treated with amphotericin B for longer than a week and were examined for evidence of nephrotoxicity. None had persistent abnormalities of blood urea nitrogen or serum creatinine concentrations develop during treatment; two patients had hypokalemia.