• Forty children who had persistent fetal circulation (PFC) were followed up for one to four years. At the most recent examination, 16 (40%) were normal, eight (20%) had neurosensory hearing loss, three (7.5%) were profoundly impaired, six (15.0%) had suspect or abnormal results of neurologic examinations exclusive of hearing loss, three (7.5%) had speech impairment and normal hearing, and one had a delay in motor development. The remaining three had clinically suspect speech. Neurosensory hearing loss correlated only with having a mother with insulin-dependent diabetes, hand-to-mouth facility on the Brazelton scale, and eight-month neurologic status. Earlier diagnosis of hearing loss may be facilitated by testing of neonatal auditory behavioral responses, neurologic status at eight months, and by attention to parental concern about abnormal speech development. Neonatal and infancy auditory screening are recommended in children who have PFC in the neonatal period.