• We determined serum lipid and lipoprotein percentiles from a total community study of 5,250 fasting children (35% black, 65% white), aged 2 to 19 years. A serum turbidity index was used as a rapid, inexpensive screening test for hyper-β-lipoproteinemia and hyper-pre-β-lipoproteinemia. Percentile grids for the turbidity index and serum total cholesterol and β-lipoprotein cholesterol levels may be used for either black or white children. Triglyceride and pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol level percentile grids were reported by race because of lower levels in black children, while grids for α-lipoprotein cholesterol levels were reported separately by sex for black and white subjects. A five-step method was outlined for screening children for lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities. Those with hyper-β-lipoproteinemia and hyperpre-β-lipoproteinemia would be candidates for therapy and indicate screening of other family members, after secondary causes are excluded.