• The growth of children undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) therapy for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was compared with the growth of children undergoing hemodialysis and that of children after successful kidney transplantation. The bone ages of the children were used to predict expected growth velocities. The actual growth velocities observed were then expressed as percentages of the predicted rates. Children receiving CAPD therapy grew better than those treated by hemodialysis and as well as the children who received a kidney transplant. There was some correlation between growth and allograft function in the transplant recipients. Children receiving CAPD were less acidotic and were more likely to exhibit improvement in renal osteodystrophy than children treated by ongoing hemodialysis. There were no significant differences in reported caloric intake between the two groups.