• Results of oral and topical erythromycin therapy in 41 infants under 4 months of age with chlamydial conjunctivitis were evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. After three weeks of treatment, relapse or reinfection of the eye occurred in four of 19 patients (21%) in the topical therapy group and in three of 22 patients (13.6%) in the oral therapy group (P>.69). In the topical therapy group, chlamydiae were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures of eight patients (42%) during or after therapy. Chlamydiae were eradicated from the nasopharynx of the six colonized patients treated with oral erythromycin. All relapses responded to a course of oral erythromycin therapy. We conclude that both modes of therapy are comparable for treatment of chlamydial conjunctivitis, but that oral therapy has the advantage of eradicating nasopharyngeal colonization.
(Am J Dis Child 1982;136:817-821)