• Sixty neonates who were transferred to a neonatal intensive care unit during a four-year period had diagnoses of persistent fetal circulation (PFC). Six of these 60 neonates had β-hemolytic streptococcal infection. The clinical appearance of these six neonates included respiratory distress, cyanosis, and/or apnea. The chest roentgenograms showed mild to moderate lung disease. All six neonates had progressive acidosis with hypoxemia. The diagnosis of PFC was made by cardiac catheterization or contrast echoangiography. The neonates were treated with mechanical ventilation, antibiotics, and supportive therapy, including tolazoline hydrochloride. Mortality was high; only one of the six neonates survived. Streptococcal infection should be added to the growing list of conditions associated with PFC.
(Am J Dis Child 1982;136:725-727)