• Nephrolithiasis was present in a 2-month-old premature infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia who had been receiving furosemide and intravenous (IV) gluconate calcium therapy. This infant was found to be hypercalciuric. Furosemide therapy is known to increase calcium excretion. In the present study, we examined sick infants who were receiving gluconate calcium without furosemide to evaluate the effect of gluconate calcium therapy on urinary calcium excretion. The sick infants receiving gluconate calcium had higher values of urinary calcium than did the well infants taking regular formula feedings. Moreover, the calciuria appeared to increase progressively with continued gluconate calcium therapy. It appears that prolonged use of either furosemide or IV gluconate calcium leads to hypercalciuria, which, in turn, may predispose the premature infant to nephrolithiasis.
(Am J Dis Child 1981;135:538-543)