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Pneumococcal Empyema in Childhood

Jane D. Siegel, MD; J. Carlton Gartner, MD; Richard H. Michaels, MD
Am J Dis Child. 1978;132(11):1094-1096. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1978.02120360050008.
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• Two serotypes, uncommon in pediatric infections, accounted for a disproportionately large number of cases of pneumococcal empyema at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. Eight of ten empyemas were caused by types 1 or 3, and two additional cases of mixed infection involved the type 3 pneumococcus. The type 3 pneumococcal empyemas tended to be more severe than those due to other serotypes. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) appeared to be more useful than culture in establishing the cause of this condition; in seven of ten cases, the pleural fluid was CIE positive while cultures of blood and pleural fluid were negative. In each of the seven culture-negative cases, antibiotics had been given prior to hospitalization. One case of type 7 pneumococcal empyema illustrated the potential value of the Ouchterlony test for the etiologic diagnosis of this condition.

(Am J Dis Child 132:1094-1096, 1978)

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