Clinical History.—This 1-year-old girl had a fever for 24 hours prior to admission to hospital. There was a history of a urinary tract infection at 6 months of age. The child was otherwise healthy, and there was no history of other illnesses. She was the product of a full-term delivery without incident.
Physical Examination.—Temperature on admission was 38.9 C. The child was generally ill and irritable. There was no icterus. There was a fullness in the right flank, and the bladder was somewhat distended. The liver was not palpable, and there was no edema of the extremities. The remainder of the examination was within normal limits.
Results of urinalysis revealed numerous WBCs per high power field. The hemogram, blood urea, and serum creatinine determinations were normal. An intravenous urogram (Fig 1) and a cystogram (Fig 2) were obtained after antibiotic treatment of the urinary infection.