Melbourne.—Australia is an affluent country, and paediatric health needs are similar to those of other Western countries. The major world child health problems of malnutrition and infection seem hardly relevant to the vast majority of Australians, living as most do in large towns and cities. Nevertheless, Australian children are not all white, well nourished, and healthy. There are more than 100,000 aborigines in Australia, 0.83% of the population, and their numbers are increasing. About half are full blooded, and 38% of these and 51% of mixed-blooded aborigines are under the age of 15 years.1 Their health problems are more closely aligned to those of the underdeveloped countries of the world than to the health problems of white Australians.
Aboriginal child health has been the subject of political activity in the past years. It has long been recognised that the health of aboriginal children has been poor compared to