Kwashiorkor is uncommon in the United States. Two cases of kwashiorkor were encountered in Cleveland in a short period of time. Both infants had edema, growth failure, irritability, skin and hair changes, and anemia. In each case a major abnormality of feeding had been neither recognized nor corrected during contact with medical personnel. The children did not have milk allergy and both were fed in the hospital without major difficulty, all symptoms resolving with adequate calorie, protein, vitamin, and iron intake. The importance of complete feeding histories is emphasized since such gross protein-calorie malnutrition and its sequelae are preventable.